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IT gives me great pleasure to commend a volume which sets 
forth in such fitting terms the life and work of Dr. Gulick. 
The volume has been prepared as a labor of love by his daughter, 
Mrs. Jewett, than whom no one of my acquaintance is better fitted 
for the task, both through her thorough acquaintance with the 
incidents of his life and work and because of her command of 
language and of a style well fitted for this object. Few men have 
had a more varied experience on mission ground than Dr. Gulick ; 
few have shown greater ability and power of adaptation to the 
most varied circumstances, and it is fitting that the record of his 
career in Micronesia, in the Sandwich Islands, in Spain, and in 
Italy should be commemorated as a part of the missionary history 
of the past generation. 

The more I reflect upon it the more I wonder at the work which 
Dr. Gulick was enabled to do at Ponape, at Ebon, as Secretary of 
the Hawaiian Board, and, later, in the organization of missions in 
Papal Lands, and, last of all, in the splendid work of distributing 
the Scriptures in Japan and China. Certainly he must rank 
among the great missionaries of the world. Many in this country 
remember his rare eloquence in setting forth the missionary work. 
He has a record unsurpassed in missionary annals. 


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/ will claim the whole heathen world as my countrymen, 

iAg9 Ji/i0*iu) 

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FROM the age of twelve until he was married at twenty-three 
Dr. Gulick was quite deprived of intimate friendship. A 
certain sort of compensation came, however, in the unreserved 
expression of himself to himself through his diligent pen and his 
daily journal. As a result, this journal pictures in a remarkable 
way the development of the soul of a conscientious child. 

For this reason, and also because the larger interest centers 
always in what a man is and in what he is becoming rather than 
in what he does, the earlier years of Dr. Gulick's life in America, 
and the succeeding years of his growth in Micronesia, have been 
allowed to occupy more space in this brief history than would 
otherwise have been given to them. His later missionary expe- 
riences were in line with what the Christian Church already well 
understands. They have, therefore, been crowded into narrower 

In the preparation of any biography, the ideal method is that of 
simple compilation from letters and other manuscript. But this 
course has its disadvantage ; for to present a character clearly in 
this way necessitates, as a rule, a history in two or three volumes. 
When that which is more brief is desired, as in the present case, 
there is, therefore, no alternative but to quote such part alone of 
what was written as, it may be hoped, will afford both help and 
inspiration to the reader, giving the rest in condensed narrative 

The story of this life has been written with this thought in mind. 

When these chapters have been read, it may perhaps be asked 

whether there were no other side to the character which has been 


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pictured. The answer to the query is that every haman life has its 
stronger and its weaker side, bat that a daughter writes this his- 
tory; and though she has striven to be honest, her father is its 

For the manuscript examined, I am indebted to the kindness of 
many friends and to the courtesy of the officers of the American 
Board who have permitted free access to all tliat is on file in their 
rooms in Boston. 

Personally my obligation is greatest to the close circle of family 
relatives without whose earnest cooperation and encouragement 
this work would not have been attempted. 


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The Beginning of Mission Worlc on Hawaii. — Physical 
Charms of the Islands. — Birth of Luther Halsey Gulick. — 
Condition of the People. — Mutual Relation of Missionary 
and Hawaiian. — Natural Influence of Such Surroundings 
uponaChild.—Halsey>s Ancestry 18 



His Joamal.— Indications of Fondness for Study.— Confi- 
dence of Others in Him.— His Earliest Friends. — Death 
of Gerrit Judd 17 



Separation from Home. — His Courage. — 111 Health. — Talca- 
huano. — Sabbath-keeping. —Working. — His Seriousness. 
— Arrival at Wood's Holl 26 



Need of Adjustment to New Environment. — Well-intentioned 
Sabbath-school Superintendent. — Loneliness. — Farm Life 
in New Jersey and Connecticut. — Introduction to Auburn 
and to Dr. and Mrs. Halsey 94 



Study without Play. — Debating Society. — Appreciation of 
Time. — His Compositions. — Letter-writing. — Homesick- 
ness.— Waiting for Dr. Halsey. — His Reading. — Blxhibi- 
tion and Prizes. — John Quincy Adams in Auburn ... 4^ 

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Theological Atmosphere of the Time. — Self-accusation. — 
Surrounding Conditions. — A Sabbath of Extreme Suffer- 
ing.— Reading "Baxter's Call." — "A Delusive Hope." 

— Changed Feelings. — Closing Meditations of the Year 
1843 53 



Growing Peace. — Pledge of Himself to Foreign Missions. — 
Preparation for Union with the Church. — Fear of Self- 
deception.— The Dedication of Himself 65 



Indefatigable Study. — Failing Health. — A College Course Im- 
possible. — Medical Study Begun. — Wide Reading.— 
Desire for Public Speaking. — Depression. — Intimacy 
with the News of the World. — City Mission Work. — 
Old Friends and the Meeting of the American Board. — 
His devotion to Polynesia 72 



Theological Study.— Refusal of Proffered Aid. — Projected 
Mission to Micronesia. — Offer of Himself to the Board. — 
Doctrinal Perplexities. — His Ordination. — His Marriage. 

— Louisa Lewis Gulick. — TLey Sail from Boston ... 83 



The Esther May. — The Storm. — Honolulu Again. — Dr. 
Gulick's Influence upon His Brothers. — Changes among 
Friends and in the Xation. — Preparation for the Micro- 
nesian Mission. — Growing Interest. — Hawaiians Ready 
to Go as Missionaries. — Purchase of the Caroline. — Public 
Consecration of the Hawaiian Missionaries. — Kameha- 
meha's Letter,— Tlie Caroline Sails 95 

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Discomfort. — Butaritari. — The People. — The King. — De- 
scription of a Coral Reef. — Kusaie. —Signs of Civilization. 
—"Good King George" 110 



Excitement of the Crew. — Pictures of the People. — The 
Welcome. — Mr. Corgat. — Modes of Travel. — The Caro- 
line Leaves 125 



The Ponapeans. — Location of the Missionaries. — Dr. and Mrs. 
Gulick's Home. — Use of Tobacco in Trade. — Dr. Gulick 
as Musician. — School work. —Housekeeping. — Building. 
— Difficulty in Securing Help. — Scarcity of Food . . . 130 



Sale of the Caroline. — Irregular Communication with the 
World. — The Annual Mail. — Disappointments.— His 
Mental Life. --The Pressure of Isolation 148 



Dr. Gulick's Study of Conditions in Micronesia. — The Out- 
come of This Work. — Animal Life and Plant Life on 
Ponape.— The Ruins. — Priests. — The Religion of the 
People.— The Epidemic 161 

General Wakening on Ponape. —The Printing Press.- The 
First Primer. — Joquin. — Religious Movement. — Dr. 
Gulick's Desire for more Self-denying Labor 174 

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Proposition to Build Her. —Enthusiasm of the Children. — She 
is Launched. — Ponape Beached. — Mrs. Gulick Returns 
to Hawaii 182 



His Description of Mrs. Gulick. — Life without Her. — Dress- 
making. — Letter-writing. — Extracts from Letters to His 
Wife. — Her Return 188 



Micronesian Missionaries in 1859. — Proposition to Sell the 
Morning Star — The Mission Pleads for Her and for 
Their Work in Micronesia.— Ill Health.— He Returns to 
Hawaii 196 



San Francisco Visited. — " The Turning Point" in His Life.— 
Attends the Meeting of the American Board in Springfield, 
Maas. — Extended Missionary Campaign among the 
Churches. — His Pleasure in Speaking. — The Interest 
of His Audiences. — Invitation to become Secretary of 
the Board of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association. — His 
Return to Honolulu 202 



Hawaii's Need in 1864. — Lack of Native Pastors. — Reasons 
for this Condition. — Action of the Hawaiian Evangelical 
Association in 1863. — Formation of the Board of the Asso- 
ciation. — Relation of the American Board to the Hawaiian 
Board. — Dr. Gulick's Work Outlined. — The Conservatism 
of Certain Missionaries. — Large Cooperation. — Rapid 
Results. — Friendship of the Hawaiians. — The Euokoa. — 
Visiting among the People 212 

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Kamehameha lY and Kamehameha Y OontraBted. — Proclama- 
tion of the King. — Action of the Hawaiian Board. — The 
Convention. — The King Abrogates the Constitution and 
Prorogues the Convention. — He gives the People a New 
Constitution. — Outcome of His Action as Seen in 1893. — 
News of Abraham Lincoln's Death.— Two Currents in 
Hawaiian Life. — Two Courses Advocated to Meet the Evil. 

— Dr. Gulick's Position. — His Arrest by the Government. 

— The Reprimand 222 



His Love for both America and Hawaii. — The Yariety of His 
Work. — Results as Shown in 1869. — Kawaiahao Seminary 
Established.— The Home in Manoa Yalley. — The Diffi- 
culty of His Position. — His Convictions of Duty. — The 
Opinion of Others. — He Refuses Reelection as Secretary 
of the Hawaiian Board. — Leaves for Boston 236 



In America Again. —The Scattered Family. — Reversed Plans. 

— Little Ollie. — To Spain. — Correspondence of the Gulick 
Family. — Dr. Gulick's Work in Spain. — Spanish Chris- 
tians and Self-support. — Best Attitude to take toward 
Spanish Churches. — He goes to Italy. — Hindrances to 
Work There. — Financial Embarrassment in Boston.— 
Close of the Italian Mission. — Yisit to Turkey. — Return 

to Boston 247 



His Duties in Boston. —His Desire to Maintain " the Unity of 
his Life."— A Call from the American Bible Society. — To 
Japan. — First Impressions.— News of the Death of His 
Son 261 

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The Pain which Accompanied the Move from One Society to 
the Other. — Growing Satisfaction in His Worlt. — Antici- 
pation of His Wife^s Arrival. — She Joins Him .... 266 



Reasons for the Move to Japan. — Changes Since They Left 
America. — The Last Words of Rev. P. J. Gulick. — His 
Death. — The Death of Mrs. P.J. Gulick 271 



Work Previously Done by the Bible Society in Japan and 
China. — Dr. Gulick's Desire to Avoid Giving Pain to 
Sensitive People. — Departments of Bible Work. — A New 
Era of Exact Reports Inaugurated. —Rapid Bible Distribu- 
tion in Japan in 1880. — Division of His Field. — Perma- 
nent Location in China. — His Colporters. — His Journeys. 

— His Thoughts on the Immensity of China. — Bookkeep- 
ing. — Progress of the Work 276 



Preaching in Japan and China. — Character of the Church in 
Shanghai. — His Audience. — Editorship. — Words of 
Commendation. — His D.D. — A Son and Daughter Join 
Foreign Mission Service. — The Call from Hawaii. — 
Prompt Action in Behalf of Mr. Doane. — His Love for 
Micronesia. — Quotations Proving Overpressure and Fail- 
mgHealth 289 



Sudden Prostration. — To Japan and America. — Great Suffer- 
ing. — Continued Weakness. — New York City Again. — 
Conversation with His Daughter. — His Last Weeks in 
Sprhigfield. — He Passes Away 304 



Desire to Continue in Mission Work. — Visit to the Cemetery. 

— Return to Japan. — Work There. — Illness. — Death . 310 

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IT was, no doubt, of permanent significance to 
Halsey Gulick that his earlier years were spent 
in the midst of the evolution of a Christian from a 
heathen nation. Missionary work had begun on the 
Hawaiian Islands in 1820, and the history of that 
work and of that people is, perhaps, more familiar 
to the student of missions than that of any other 
since the days of Paul. Here were islands literally 
'' waiting," and a people who welcomed missionaries 
with the thrilling words: "Hawaii's idols are no 
more ! " 

Added to the attraction of this welcome were the 
physical charms of Hawaii, for there are mountains 
here that reach to the snows and valleys so deep that 
the vines and ferns and moss which drape them 
hardly know what sunshine is. Here, too, are the 
whitened outlines of surf upon the sand and the 
shaded green of rolling breakers, while blue skies and 


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summer cloads are drawn about these islands as 
a curtain. 

Without question, nature and perpetual summer 
have done their best for Hawaii. But of correspond- 
ing comforts of man's making there was painful 
dearth in Honolulu in June, 1828, when Luther Halsey 
Gulick was bom.^ Indeed, all that is necessary for 
real living was still in its infancy here ; and though 
eight years of effort on the part of the earlier mis- 
sionaries had proved the willingness of the people to 
improve their condition, Hawaiian barbarism had not, 
as yet, been exchanged for Western civilization. 
Natives still lived in unfurnished, straw-thatched 
houses of primitive fashion, while many of their num- 
ber were clad in garments even more primitive than 
their homes. The truth is that these children of the 
tropics found it a very easy matter to exercise rigid 
economy in labor and raiment. 

Of necessity, the missionaries also lived in simple 
homes. They had only such comforts as were con- 
veniently brought with them from Boston, around 
Cape Horn, increased sometimes by the chairs and 
tables and bookshelves which they themselves took 
time to make. 

Yet neither deficiency in home furnishing nor lack 

1 Through childhood he was called Halsey, though in later life he was 
more often known as Dr. Luther Gulick. 

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of dainty comforts lessened for Halsey the loving 
welcome of his parents. Their firstborn son! And 
this missionary father and mother rejoiced as truly 
as royalty does when an heir is born. As for the 
child himself, no palace could have made him merrier 
and no adornment of " purple and fine-twined linen " 
could have added any radiance to the love that beamed 
upon him from his mother's eyes.^ 

Mr. and Mrs. Gulick had reached Honolulu in 
March, 1828, and thereafter, for forty-six consecutive 
years, they lived among this people of their adoption 
— years of prayerful devotion to the good of others. ^ 

Now because all the knowledge, the enterprise, the 
unselfish helpfulness which the Hawaiians had ever 
seen were centered in the missionary homes multi- 
plying among them, and also because, without any 
explanation, heathen people know what self-sacrifice 

1 Halsey '8 ancestor, Hendrlck Gulick, came to America from the 
Netherlands in 1653. In 1790 John Gulick was a Christian farmer in 
New Jersey and his wife was, as they claimed, " the most powerful argu- 
ment for Christianity " which her seven sons and one daughter had 
ever known. Peter Johnson, the third son, Halsey's father, was born 
in 1797. He possessed determination and a lofty ambiUon, overcame 
serious obstacles, was graduated from Princeton College in 1826, studied 
theology there, was married in 1827, and sailed from Boston, In Novem- 
ber, as a missionary to the Hawaiian Islands. Fanny Hinckley Thomas, 
his wife, was of English ancestry, bom in 1798 In Lebanon, Conn. 
While teaching in Utlca, N. T.> she was converted by the preaching of 
Dr. Charles Finney, of Oberlln, and a year later was married to the 
New Jersey theological student, and sailed with him for Hawaii. 

' During this time Mrs. GulLck went to California once, but without 
her husband. 

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and brotherly love are, very soon and everywhere the 
missionaiy was recognized by the natives as their 
kindest friend. To him they came for medicine, for 
advice, for instruction, when they were ready for it, 
for clothing, too, as consciousness of its need dawned 
slowly upon them. Little by little they were taught 
to sew, to build better homes, to regard the rights of 
their neighbors, and to understand the requirement 
of a righteous God. 

In this atmosphere of helpfulness to others — of 
life devoted to the glory of God and the good of 
mankind — Halsey Gulick received his first impres- 
sions. In his case the forces of a pious ancestry and 
an environment of self-sacrifice were united, and one 
need not have been a prophet to foresee the result of 
this union. Nevertheless unfolding history can alone 
show whether other forces shall be strong enough to 
change what seems to be the foreshadowed course of 
his development. 

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FOR twenty-five years of his life the material from 
which we draw our best acquaintance with 
Halsey Gulick is the journal which he himself kept. 
This was begun in Koloa, Kauai — where his parents 
were then stationed — on the twenty-fifth of June, 
1836. Halsey was at this time eight years old ; and 
we easily picture the boy as he bent over his square, 
board-covered first volume and with unaccustomed 
fingers tried to write in straight lines across unruled 
pages. To-day the cover is worn, the cramped, child- 
ish writing yellow with age. But through all that is 
written we trace an unfolding life, and see the man 
already outlined in the boy. 

That the scene should be laid on heathen ground 
adds a certain flavor to the whole. But, curiously 
enough, the heathen are not mentioned, nor the trees, 
nor the ocean, nor the splendid climate ; probably 
because for him all this simply represented life in 
normal conditions. He had known nothing else. 
There is, however, significant regularity in the daily 
mention of lessons learned. Indeed the first entry 


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sounds the dominant note of the whole : *' Mr. Ladd 
and son and Mrs. Hooper came to tea. I learnt my 
lessons before they came.'* Each sacceeding day lias 
its similar story — an item of news, then the cheerful 
refrain, "I have learnt my lessons." Occasionally, 
however, there is a minor touch, with the reason for it 
added : " I have not learnt all my lessons. I helped 
take care of baby." *' I have not learnt my lessons. 
Mr. Alexander came this morning." Yet in both 
cases and always through the year 1836 we have 
laconic brevity. 

In December a certain dramatic tendency is added. 
Tragedy threatens and Halsey's younger brother 
Orramel is the hero. I give the text in full : — 

"December 14. Learnt my lessons. Orramel is 

"December 15. 
sick still. 

" December 16. 

" December 17. 

A happy ending, concerning which the youthful 
scribe doubtless felt more joy than is recorded. But 
with 1837 there is greater detail. We learn more of 
studies and daily occupation, as shown in January, 
when, "It is quite cold this morning," he writes. 

Learnt my lessons. 
Learnt my lessons. 
Learnt my lessons. 

Orramel is 

Orramel is 

Orramel is 

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*' Before breakfast I worked in the gtirden. At half- 
past nine I learnt geography, Emerson's Questions, 
spelling, arithmetic, and writing." Later in the year 
we read of philosophy added and geometry. 

But as yet there is no written sign of emotion or 
aspiration or struggle with himself. This came as he 
grew older. Still there is suggestion of it even in 
1838 when the year was spent at school in Honolulu. 
And though the daily journal still tells most of active 
life, we nevertheless realize by degrees that thoughts 
are also caught sometimes and given to his journal. 

*' The day seemed very long," writes the homesick 
child ; and the reason for it follows : " Received some 
things from home to-day." 

Again later : " The scholars did not behave very 
well in school to-day and I believe Miss Smith felt 
sad about it." 

A footnote to Miss Smith says : '^ Our teacher." 
Footnotes, indeed, have become quite helpful to this 
''clever lad," as his father termed him. So also is 
another device. To rectify the mistake of a wrongly 
written word a fresh bit of paper is neatly pasted 
over it, and on this the word is carefully written. It 
is very evident that reading and writing already make 
serious claim on Halsey Gulick and that his instinct 
is in favor of their best performance. Certainly he is 
sincere when he says: — 

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"Miss Smithes gone to Lahaina, and I feel very 
sorry because there is no school this week." 

No doubt there is equal sincerity when he also 
writes : " It is hard work to keep from whispering and 
I often yield to the temptation, but I hope I shall be 
able to very soon overcome." 

This is our first introduction to the constantly grow- 
ing, overmastering purpose of his life, his unflinching 
determination to be conqueror of himself. Recog- 
nizing as we do the moral principle which controlled 
him, we are not surprised that the mothers in Hono- 
lulu used to say : " We always felt perfectly safe 
when our children were with Halsey Gulick." 

Manifestly, friends no less than parents loved the 
conscientious boy. But something more was required 
in those stern days. Halsey had not yet passed 
through the era of spiritual convulsion popularly 
recognized as "being converted." Without this 
exjjerience, whatever his life might testify to the 
contrary, none could feel that his soul was as yet 
quite safe. Such, indeed, was his own conviction ; a 
conviction pitifully wrought out with pain and tears 
in later years. The pressure of this requirement is 
apparent in the letters which now came to him ; letters 
written over fifty years ago and loyally kept till all 
was over — till the battle had been fought, till life's 
journey was done. One is from a missionary lady : — 

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"My dear boy, do you think of these things? 
Have you felt that you are a sinner against the great, 
good God? Many little children have given their 
hearts to God before they were as old as you." 

But more precious to him was this other letter — 
precisely written, neatly folded, faded by the years, 
worn by its journey ings — this letter from a praying 
mother in Koloa to her son in Honolulu : — 

" We should all be glad to see you. The little 
boys would talk so much to you and stick so close to 
you that you would have no time to be lonesome. 
And your hours of retirement would probably be 
interrupted. You would have a less favorable oppor- 
tunity to think of heaven, of hell, of Jesus, and of 
your own soul than you now have in your little private 
room. I have hoped that you would give your heart 
to Jesus in that little room. Oh, how happy we should 
be if you should come back with a new heart ! " 

This was part of the influence that molded him, 
that bore its fruit in later years. But just now in 
Honolulu life was more full of busy activity than of 
spiritual contemplation. We are introduced to vari- 
ous young friends — to his dearest schoolmate, Gerrit 
Judd, and to Sereno Bishop and Hiram Bingham, his 
lifelong friends. 

Besides their mutual occupation, their studies, 
walks, and games, Halsey had his other interests. 

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He drew books from the library, borrowed books from 
his friends, attended lectures when he could, — a very 
rare treat in those days, — and even exercised himself 
sometimes in mercantile transactions. Through these 
we meet again his dear younger brother Orramel. 

"I went to Mr. Diell to sell some beans for 
Orramel; got a shilling for them." 

Another venture with other beans brought half a 
dollar more to himself, Orramel, and John. Then an 
isolated sentence shows grievous financial loss. Yet 
it stands without comment or tears : — 

" I lost a purse of money with a dollar in it." 

Literally a nine days' wonder, for nine days later, 
again without comment or word of acclamation, this 
time is the terse sequel: — 

'' I found my money on the table under some 

Books already burying out of sight the silver ! A 
significant prophecy. 

But Honolulu life came to an end. Halsey returned 
to Koloa; and the letters which followed him round 
out for us these early impressions. Two notes from 
Gerrit are among his treasures of 1839. One of 
them reads in loving, childish fashion: — 

^^ Dear Halsey, — When are you coming to school? 
for we miss you very much indeed; at least 
I do." 

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Following this is a note from their teacher : — 

"Genit has gone to his long home. His resting 
place is in the grave till the last trumpet shall wake 
the slumbering dead, ' Be ye also ready, for ye know 
not the hour when the Son of Man cometh.' Halsey, 
are you ready to die? Shall eternal life be your por- 
tion or everlasting death ? You must not delay your 
choice. Halsey, give not sleep or slumber to your 
eyes till you have made your peace with God." 

Then the stricken mother writes to Halsey about the 
last hours of his little friend : — 

'' He asked to be raised up. The bright sun was 
just shining into the room. He looked around upon all 
with a serene, heavenly expression of countenance and 
then said : ' I feel now that I am going to die and go 
to heaven. Good-by, dear mother ; I shall see you in 
heaven.' Oh, how our hearts ached all day! At 
evening it was apparent he was sinking. I bent over 
him while his breath grew shorter till it was all quite 
gone and we sang ' Jesus, lover of my soul.' It is 
very lonely and sad around the house and garden." 

Folded closely in this letter is a quaint, old-fash- 
ioned locket ; and across it, under glass, is a lock of 
fine hair that gleams in the sunshine and is soft brown 
in the shadow. On a piece of tinted paper in the 
familiar penmanship of Halsey's early journals is the 
added word about it: "A lock of Gerrit's hair, who 

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died November 13, 1839, aged ten years, eight 
months, and five days." 

Notes and locket too have been cherished now for 
over fifty years. And the gentle presence of the love 
which treasured them seems very near to them to-day. 

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rriHE scene of the record now shifts. It is Octo- 
-^ ber, 1840, and a new heading on a new page 
introduces us with some formality to new conditions. 
As if Halsey realized that a crisis in life had come to 
him, he begins : — 

"Luther Halsey Gulick's Journal, commencing 
on leaving the Hawaiian Islands for the United 

" October 2, 1840. Hurry and bustle all day. At 
four left the abode of my dear parents in Koloa, at 
the age of twelve years, three months, and twenty- 
two days, for the land of my forefathers. Shipped 
aboard the William Penn, Captain Bodfish." ^ 

A brief statement, yet only the foreign missionary 
can understand what it meant to the home in Koloa, 
to the mother there, and to the eldest son who left it. 
And even the foreign missionary of to-day must 
measure with his imagination and not his experience 
the pain which came with this kind of parting fifty 

» Halsey went In company with Mr. and Mrs. Reuben Tinker and 
their two sons. 


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years ago. For in those days separation meant a 
great chasm seldom bridged. Neither telegraph nor 
railroad nor ocean steamer had bound the world 
together. Slow letters exchanged once a year often 
emphasized the growing estrangement, while parents 
and children alike were helpless before the inevitable. 
But duty was as imperative then as now. Innocent 
children were not safe so close to heathen life. There 
were two evils to choose between, and wise parents 
chose the lesser. 

For this reason Mrs. Gulick had packed the little 
trunk while she tried to hide her tears. But her 
words were brave as she counseled her sou, and for 
the last time prayed with him and in parting whis- 
pered : ''God bless you, my darling boy, and keep 
you ! Remember that we are praying for you every 
day." Halsey then sailed away. And after that, for 
many days, his mother was ill with her grief and 
could not be comforted. 

Through the succeeding eight months we have the 
story of an ocean voyage on a whaler kept by an 
earnest little boy who was adapting himself to circum- 
stances and trying to be brave. 

An early trial was "the roaches at night" which 
troubled him. '' They bite my toes," he says, " and 
ran over me." This is the way he met the perplexity : 
" I have a shelf in my berth on which I put my books. 

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At my feet my clock aud bag of clothes are hung up ; 
at my head a borrowed slate — for I forgot to bring 
one with me — and my Marquesan fan with which I 
silenced the roaches." 

" I feel the need of your help often," he writes to 
his mother, ' ' but I think I shall learn to think and act 
for myself after a while." And though through these 
months of ocean monotony there is no real lamen- 
tation of homesickness, still we repeatedly see how 
much the separation meant to him as well as to his 
mother, and how constantly his thoughts were with his 
parents and brothers at home : — 

" In the afternoon felt bad in thinking I was leaving 
home and friends, perhaps never more to see them on 

" Passed the Tropic of Cancer yesterday. I can 
say from my heart there is no place like home." 

" Had prayers in the morning for the first time. It 
brought to my recollection the privileges I enjoyed at 

"I often think of home, but not with feelings of 
regret, for I know it is for my good." 

Then there is increased pathos : — 

" Sundays here do not seem like Sundays at home, 
for some reason or other. The day seems longer than 
it used to at home." 

"These bright moonlight nights I get up into the 

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sail that is put up as an awning and think of home 
and think of getting to the United States." 

It is not difficult to imagine the small figure curled 
up among the sails, and the bright brown eyes that 
grow dim as they try to span that limitless, moonlit 
Pacific Ocean, while pictures of home and mother rise 
before them. But Halsey had determined to be brave ; 
he, therefore, thought also of duty and of the United 
States. Then, too, there was diversion even on a 

Once his hat flew overboard and there was boyish 
excitement as a boat hastened after but failed to save 
it. At times they sighted whales and pursued them. 
And when they captured one they '^ took the case on 
deck and bailed out the oil," while eager eyes ^^at the 
masthead saw just how they did it." After all, how- 
ever, time dragged. Days and weeks moved slowly. 
Halsey missed the variety of mountain and shore and 
the fi'eedom of horseback riding, and the journal 
grows dejected: — 

" I feel the need of exercise. I get tired walking." 

" Very calm and hot all day. It is very discour- 
aging to be becalmed." 

Then for a season he suffers from headache. He 
stays in bed mornings and neither studies as usual nor 
writes in his journal. Monday, Tuesday, and Wednes- 
day no longer step with regularity through each 

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recorded week, and we recognize the symptom as 
serious. But after many days they approached Talca- 
huano. Here they were to touch before rounding 
Cape Horn. And now each breeze was full of possi- 
bility ; each calm a woe ; and the days brought every 
sort of weather : — 

"Wind ahead." "Dead calm." "A favorable 
breeze." "Wind blowing almost a gale." "Very 
favorable breeze." Then, at last, the small scribe is 
jubilant: "We have got to Talcahuano harbor. We 
are anchored, though not in the right place." 

Two weeks here involved a new experience in 
Sabbath-keeping. Now Halsey was not perplexed 
about the Sabbath question. He had been strictly 
trained and his pen had thus far followed each Sabbath 
of the voyage with a quiet notice of it : " Had meet- 
ing forenoon and afternoon. " Had meeting twice as 
usual." " Fine weather; had preaching morning and 
evening." Then, relentlessly : "No meeting. I won- 
der at it. Cutting up the whale. It does not seem 
much like keeping the Sabbath holy." After that, for 
successive Sabbaths, the simple words: "No meet- 
ing," " No meeting," till the condition became chronic 
and he writes very gravely: "Had no meetings as 
usual." 1 

1 Omitted because of Mrs. Tinker's Illness. Evidently Halsey did 
not know the reason. 

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In Talcahuano there was a difference : — 

^^ We went aboard the frigate Constitution and had 
services. There was a good deal of noise, though it 
cannot be helped, for there are five hundred men on 
board. We had some music. At four we returned, 
after dining with Commodore Claxton, a kind-hearted 
old gentleman. Our entertainment was very splendid ; 
far too much so for the Sabbath, I thought." 

Those good people did not know how near to them 
in visible form the recording angel stood, nor how 
instinctively the divine in the child balanced their 
professing with their doing. Yet he used his invisible 
scales every day and made quaint comments sometimes. 

" I am rejoiced that I am not a sailor," he writes. 
" The mate, who professes to be pious, asked one of 
the men what he was talking about, and the man 
chose not to tell, so the mate struck him two or three 
times in the face ! This gave great offense to the 
individual — just as it would to me; therefore he 
took hold of the mate — just as 1 should have done, 
no matter whether he was mate or captain. For this 
he was turned off duty." Then follows the moral 
with its childish grammatical twist: "A sailor's life 
is hard, especially when they have bad masters." 

This suggestion of warfare was certainly sinful. 
Yet it must have been more interesting to a boy than 
prosaic sewing and washing. He nevertheless did 

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the prosaic thing, and turning it into recorded history 
one day he writes : — 

''Sewed a little." Then again: "In the evening 
washed some clothes." And later: "I feel pretty 
tired; washed six shirts, three towels, one pair 
of trowsers, aired my bed, put my woollen clothes 
to the bottom of my chest." Diligent boy of 

twelve ! 


After leaving Talcahuano he was still more dili- 
gent, for now he added the duties of cabin boy to 
his other occupations. This he was glad to do, 
as it was through the personal kindness of Captain 
Bodfish that he was able to go to America on this 

" I like my business of steward very well," he 
writes one day. " I rise at five in the morning and 
set the table, set the table at eleven for dinner and 
four for supper." But later the pleasure of it passes, 
for " it is pretty cold now," he says. ''It is not so 
comfortable to get up in the morning as it used to be." 
Then there is added trouble : " I have to take great 
care when I go with the dishes, it is so rough." " A 
heavy gale blowing. The wind made a great noise 
whistling through the rigging. Headlights in." 

Verily no imagination is needed to recognize the 
serious tone of these early journals. It is not brood- 
ing melancholy, not weakness, but as if even this lad 

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had looked with unclouded eye into life and recog- 
nized its great significance. Some times, indeed, there 
are amusing situations. Yet even then only a smile 
is caught between the lines, never any laughing. In 
fact the nearest approach to a merry note is when he 
says : — 

" I have been securing my things so that they may 
not ' fetch away ' as the sailors say. I am getting 
quite inclined to speak as the sailors do." 

But several months later, in a footnote to this entry, 
he thus chides himself for the unusual levity: "This 
is the day on which Lucy Thurston left this world, as 
is hoped, for a better one. How different would have 
been my thoughts and my occupation had I known that 
while I was so thoughtlessly spendipg my time the 
spirit of the lovely missionary daughter was winging 
its flight to another world ! " 

At last, however, it is May, 1841. The end of the 
voyage is near; and in its ending, as in its begin- 
ning, we feel the throbbing patriotism of this boy for 
the land he had never seen. With a certain solemnity 
as if he wrote, " Thus endeth the first lesson," he 
makes his closing entries : — 

' ' We are drawing near the land of my forefathers, 
but not my home." 

"Friday, May 28. In the morning at four o'clock 
got a pilot and went into the Sound. At about a 

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quarter before nine o'clock got to anchor in Wood's 
Holl. At eleven went to Captain Fisher's with Sam- 
uel Tinker. So we have reached the end of our 
voyage after a passage of two hundred and thirty- 
eight days, or eight months lacking three days." 

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"TTXHEN Halsey landed at Wood's HoU, near New 
▼ ▼ Bedford, he was filled with curiosity concern- 
ing the United States, and he also had exalted antici- 
pation of things that were better than those he had 
left. For thas far the highest civilization he had 
seen was that of Hawaii, in 1840, and the only Chris- 
tianity he had ever known was that which had given 
itself to foreign missionary work. Christian men with 
lives spent in money-making he had never met. This 
was part of the new thing which America held for 
him. Guided by less noble aims than the uplift of a 
nation. Christian life in the central Pacific would have 
seemed puerile — unworthy. 

Stamped by the early environment, Halsey had come 
to the new. To it he must adjust himself. Indeed, 
with each new experience there was inevitable adjust- 
ment, and often the process was painful. Yet the 
actual must replace the ideal. Despite its odd mix- 
ture of well-meant kindness and unintentional cruelty, 
humanity in America must be accepted as he found it. 
A lesson in%this direction came soon after landing. 


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It is not recorded in his journal. Perhaps the pain 
was too deep to be repeated at the time in writing. 
And yet we know that young Gulick never forgot the 
sense of astonishment and humiliation which it brought 
to him one Sabbath morning. 

He was at Sabbath-school ; and the worthy superin- 
tendent, with more kindness than delicacy, told the 
children about the little missionary boy who had come 
to them from a heathen land. To prove the need that 
his benevolent plan should be carried out, he showed 
to the school the hat which Halsey Gulick wore, and 
then proposed that they give him money enough 
to buy another. So the small hat from Hawaii, the 
travel-worn hat that was not very modern, was passed 
about to gather up the pennies. 

No doubt it was the old, unpardonable blunder of 
ignorant sinning — intentions being truly kind — yet 
the grief which followed was none the less real to the 
child who endured it. The new world had suddenly 
grown cold, and lonely too. And to emphasize the 
loneliness, it was almost a month before he reached 
his relatives and could once more feel that he really 
belonged to anybody. This interval of time repre- 
sented a few days with Mr. and Mrs. Tinker at Wood's 
Holl ; separation from these last of the home friends ; 
sail by slow schooner to New York ; a brief visit 
there with his mother's old friend, Mr. Ripley ; then. 

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with a sigh and a tear of difiappointment perhaps, 
the Bignificant words : ''So ends the third week in the 
land of my ancestors." 

By slower schooner yet he went to Forked Biver, 
New Jersey, and records another Sabbath and a 
birthday on the water: — 

" Sabbath we passed Hell Gate. I helped pull at 
the oars, thinking it woald be no sin, for we might get 
against the rocks." 

"To-day is my birthday. How different I should 
spend it with my dear parents ! " 

Precious boy ! And your mother that day, on 
distant Kauai, was praying as only a mother can pray, 
that God would comfort her son. It would be yet 
five months before she could hear that he had safely 
reached her home; and Halsey in turn would not 
hear from his mother until a year after he had left 
her. Those were brave, hard days for mother and 
son alike ; for her in imagination of what might be ; 
and for him in realization of what was. 

Solitary traveling to new places in a strange land 
was a dreary experience. No friends accompanied 
him ; none met him at any point. All were kind when 
he reached them, but the boy in the '' land of his fore- 
fathers" was homeless and utterly alone. He did 
not complain in his journal, no doubt accepting it all 
as part of the new life. But in later years Dr. Gulick 

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spoke sometimes of that first great loneliness and the 
desolateness of it. The worst ended, however, when, 
with a renewed sense of the dramatic, he wrote : — 

"Got into harbor at six this morning. At seven 
went ashore. After walking about two miles I found 
the house I had been looking for for about nine 
months. Found my uncle and aunt well." 

Farm life in New Jersey and Connecticut introduced 
Halsey at once to a world of new creatures and expe- 
riences. Everything was full of interest and much 
had its "first time" for him. 

"Saw a toad for the first time," he says. " Strange- 
looking creatures but just as they are represented in 

"This morning killed a snake, the second and 
largest one I ever saw." 

" To-day I was much pleased with the novelty of 
riding on the hay." 

But most delightful of all : " Last night Aunt Eliza 
had a little son. It is the first cousin I ever saw. 
Did nothing all day but run around and talk of my 

Halsey himself, with his thoughtful words and ear- 
nest ways, not to mention his box of curiosities, 
must have been interesting to his relatives. And then 
his clothes ! In addition to the fashion of them there 
was the demoralized condition that followed shipboard 

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use, and his own pitiful attempt at washing. This 
inspired more dismay perhaps than interest in the 
heart of his aunt, for " when we opened my chest 
and box," he says, " aunt thought my clothes looked 
very dirty. She can have no idea of an eight months' 
voyage aboard a whaler." 

Soon, however, "Betsey Harry" and "Betsey 
Clark" are recorded as having " come to make my 
clothes." The wardrobe is in shape again. Halsey 
has visited the old home in Connecticut, " truly a 
place which is not to be despised," as he testifies; 
and now school life in America is before him. 

" October 27, 1841. Started for Auburn this morn- 
ing at three o'clock. I rode all day and reached here 
(Albany) at eleven o'clock in the evening. I got 
pretty tired." 

"Thursday, 28. Got to Auburn at ten o'clock in 
the evening, having left my trunk at Syracuse by 
accident. But I think I shall get it again. P.M. 
Went to the depot when the cars came in and found 
my trunk. It was all safe. Took a walk around 
town. This village is a very pleasant place." 

Thus had Halsey traveled alone once more to meet 
new faces in a new place. For the present, however, 
this ended his journeyings. He had come to Auburn 
to find his permanent home with Dr. Luther Halsey, 
his father's friend of Princeton days. It was for 

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him that Luther Halsey Gnlick was named, and with 
him that much of his time in the United States was 
spent. He was a wise counselor and a kind friend 
always. Mrs. Halsey was no less kind, and Halsey 
loved them both. And yet, through these early years, 
no friend became so intimate with him as to intercept 
the confidences which found increasing fullness of 
expression in his journal. This loss of intimate 
human friendship 410 doubt explains much of the 
mental suffering which came to him later in lines of 
religious thought. 

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REMEMBERING that even in Honolulu school 
had its charm for him, we imagine the eager 
expectancy with which Halsey reached his first school 
home in America, and entered in due form the Auburn 
Academy. Still we must imagine this, for it does not 
appear in the manuscript. What we really apprehend 
is the necessity he felt for immediate adaptation to an 
astonishing schoolroom emergency : — 

*' There is so much noise I cannot study, but I hope 
to get used to it soon." 

Later we note a quiet satisfaction in his small room 
in the attic, "because it is so entirely removed from 
any noise " ; his growing passion for books ; his grief 
when holidays, vacations, or illness interfere with his 
studies; and his written protest against " not needed 
liberties " when, because it is hot, school is " dis- 
missed earlier than usual," and " lessons shortened." 

In fact, he carried his devotion to such a point that 
for months after he went to Auburn we search in 
vain for some sign of outdoor exercise, or sports with 
other children. At last the silence is explained : — 


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" To-day for the first time I played a game of foot- 
ball; feel pretty tired. It is the first time I have 
played since I have been Jiere." 

Thirteen years old, and this the first time he had 
played in six months ! Still he was not wholly with- 
out diversion. He piled wood for exercise sometimes. 
And there was promise of much pleasure when he 
joined a debating society. But early convictions were 
strong. Profanity shocked him. He soon left, 
saying, — 

" My reason for leaving it was the use of profane 
and vulgar language. Some think me too scrupluous 
about it. But my parents have often told me that the 
less I have to do with those who use profane language, 
the better. When I joined them I thought them to be 
young men in morals as well as in size ; but I find 
that I was greatly mistaken, for I have never heard 
worse language used wherever I have been, not 
excepting shipboard." 

This .unhesitating allegiance to what seemed duty is 
constantly seen. Yet there is also frequent self- 
accusation. We are often led to anticipate the con- 
fession of serious wrongdoing, until with a start of 
surprise we suddenly realize that the grievous reproach 
of this mere child is not for actual sin committed, 
but over time which he thinks he has wasted ; as on 
the first of January, 1842 : — 

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''Another year has passed," he says, "never to 
return. Oh, I have done a great many things for 
which I am ashamed ! I have disobeyed God all of 
the past year, and I cannot dare to hope that he will 
keep me another year if I keep on in the same way. 
Let me reform and try to live better this year — I 
mean improve my time. My motto for this year shall 
be ' Redeem the time.' " 

Indeed, through these years, whatever else is want- 
ing in the journal, there is no lack of proof that 
thoughts of time, of life, its importance and its 
brevity were constantly with him : — 

" To-day is my dear father's birthday. He is forty- 
five years old. How fleeting is time ! It is even like 
a vapor that appeareth for a little while and vanisheth 
away. The time will soon arrive, if I live, when I 
shall be as old as my father. Yet how distant it 
seems ! " 

And later: "This is the close of the year, and I 
have been spending it in making a ' fox and geese ' 
board. My conscience reproves me for it. There are 
ways, almost without number, that I might have spent 
it more profitably. But it is too late. The day 
has gone, weeks have gone, months too, and years. 
They have gone, never to return. How solemn the 
thought ! " 

In the meantime, however, proofs that Halsey did 

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improve his moments are before us in writing. What 
tales they tell ! 

Here is his first literary effort. It greets the world 
neither as "Essay" nor "Paper," but states its 
modest aspirations as " Intended for a Composition." 
With it are many other compositions, all carefully 
written, all numbered in regular order, all tied neatly 
in one package. Some carry the ordinary titles under 
which the ordinary youth most often writes. Others 
are index fingers of the writer himself. One enumer- 
ates the steps of "The Staircase of Knowledge," 
steps which we easily see that he himself is climbing. 
Another assails without apology " Fashion, the Child 
of the Devil." And with drawn sword this child from 
heathen lands denounces the goddess whom we follow. 
He calls her ** a thief," " a swindler," "an outcast 
of hell" ; the " meanest of devils and the proudest of 
devils," " the gravest of devils and the merriest of 
devils," " the worst of devils and the most fascinating 
of devils." 

Verily, he is in earnest with his convictions. And 
the voice of his young aspiration rings out no less 
earnestly in his unformed, youthful sermon on 
" What we are, What we might be, and What we 
will be " : — 

" Fellow students, we may be great and good men, 
and we may be ignorant and vile men. We may be 

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a blessing to society and we may be a disgrace to it. 
We may live in obscurity unknown and uncared for ; 
we may be looked up to when living and spoken of 
when dead with veneration. . . . Determine in your 
own mind what you will be, and then pursue it. Be 
not deterred by trifles or by obstacles, however great. 
. . . Determination is a potent charm. It has an 
irresistible power. When put in motion it sweeps all 
before it. It is like a flood. It carries before it all 
the dams of indolence and the bridges of folly. It 
overwhelms all the castles of self-esteem and widens 
the channels of fearful cautiousness." 

In addition to this writing of compositions a time- 
worn memorandum book brings to us a record of all 
letters written and received between 1840 and 1848. 
Dates are faithfully noted. The years stand by them- 
selves. Words of explanation are introduced. All 
entries are in ink and neatly written. And through 
it, from first page to last, are the names of father and 
mother, of Orramel, John, Charles, William, Theo- 
dore, and Thomas — so large a family that in refer- 
ring to a letter received he says : — 

"My brothers were all well, and the oldest six of 
them (too long a list to enumerate !) were at Punahou 
boarding school.*' 

'Family birthdays were also remembered, and we 
sometimes feel the homesickness which swept as a 

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deep undercnrreDt to his life; peculiarly so on a 
brother's birthday, when he says : — 

**Such days as this in particular my mind leaves 
the location of the body and seems to travel away 
eighteen thousand miles to my parents and my 
brothers, and I vainly wish I knew how they were 
spending it. But as I cannot know, 

* Fond memory brings the light 
Of other days around me,' 

and I fancy that they are celebrating it in the same 
manner as we did in ' other days.* Yet frequently the 
thought will intrude itself into my mind: * Perhaps 
they are mourning the loss of one of their number. 
Or, perhaps, — unwelcome thought, — there is no one 
left of them all, either to mourn or rejoice.* " 

Then as a sad refrain to his thinking, the song in 
full is written out : — 

Oft in the stilly night, 

Ere slumber's chain has bound me, 
Fond memory brings the light 

Of other days around me : 
The smiles, the tears 

Of boyhood's years, 
The words of love then spoken; 

The eyes that shone. 
Now dimmed and gone, 

The cheerful hearts now broken! 

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Thus in the stilly night 
Ere slumber's chain has bound me, 

Sad memory brings the light 
Of other days around me. 

When I remember all 

The friends so linked together, 
I 've seen around me fall 

Like leaves in wintry weather, 
I feel like one 

Who treads alone 
Some banquet hall deserted, 

Whose lights are fled. 
Whose garlands dead, 

And all but he departed I 

Thus in the stilly night 
Ere slumber^s chain has bound me, 

Sad memory brings the light 
Of other days around me. 

Yet homesickness in a child's heart is not always 
dominant, nor always tearful. It is often hidden by 
busy occupation or delightful sport. Thus it was with 
Halsey. Vacations in New Jersey were full of swim- 
ming and driving, and farming and rest. But when 
they came to an end he was " not the least sorry for it," 
as he says, '^ because all play suits me no better than 
it did Jack." 

Without any question he preferred study to play. 
And for this reason an experience which came to him 
one fall was peculiarly trying. 

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He had returned to Auburn as directed by his guar- 
dian, and had learned that Dr. and Mrs. Halsey were 
expected the next day. With much excitement and 
pleasure he therefore went to the station the next day 
to meet them. We feel the contagion of suppressed 
excitement as the alert, slender boy with bright hair 
and brovn eager eyes watches the train as it comes, 
and then stands breathless to welcome his friends. 

His eyes were not so bright and his step was slower 
as he went home that evening, for his guardians had 
not come. He had the same experience the next day 
and the next. In fact it was repeated without varia- 
tion every day for six weeks. School had begun, 
but he must not enter till Dr. and Mrs. Halsey should 
arrive. Worst of all, no letter came to explain, and 
no directions as to what this fatherless, motherless 
boy should do. He was boarding, and a few extracts 
from his journal show how time dragged : — 

" Paid my usual visit to the depot. As usual did 
not find Dr. Halsey." 

" Time passes very slowly, or at least seems to. I 
go to the depot once or twice every day, partly to 
spend the time, but chiefly in hopes Dr. Halsey will 

^'This week like the rest has been spent in reading, 
writing, and going to the depot." 

" This long vacation ought, I think, to suflSce for 

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some time to come, as it is a great hindrance to a 
student to relinquish his studies long at a time." 

At last, however, a letter came from Dr. Halsey. 
They had been unavoidably detained by the illness of 
Mrs. Halsey. "He hopes," writes the lad, "I will 
not take up too many studies, and cautions me against 
confining myself too closely." 

Halsey entered the Academy at once, and, compen- 
sating himself for the long vacation, he studied per- 
sistently through seventeen of the succeeding nineteen 
months in Auburn. 

Glancing backward for a moment, we appreciate 
the value of books to him while he waited. He seems 
to have read constantly ; not with an unreasoning 
devotion to whatever he found that was written, but 
with such guidance of his instinct that the profitable 
and not the foolish was chosen. Granted that at 
fourteen a boy's instincts may not always be trusted, 
still the sort of admiration given is some measure of 
the kind of books that please him. And at this time 
Halsey showed his line of choice in the inspiration 
that came to him through D'Aubigne's History of the 

" I am much pleased with the two principal charac- 
ters which figured in the Germanic Reformation, 
Luther and Melanchthon, though I hardly know which 
to admire most, Luther for his boldness, or Melanch- 

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thon for his mildness. I think, however, I should 
prefer being a Luther (I am one by name) . There is 
something noble, something that evinces more than 
ordinary courage, in the act of standing up before the 
crowned heads of the earth, whose decisions will, 
perhaps, consign one to the fate of a martyr, and 
fearlessly announcing and defending one's doctrines, 
something which makes me sometimes wish that I had 
lived in that age, and could have taken part in those 
transactions. But those days are past, and I must 
prepare for usefulness in some other sphere, though it 
may be that I shall yet have a similar opportunity to 
ascertain what spkit I am of." 

A hope that erelong proved to be a prophecy. He 
showed indeed, even then, the spirit that was in him 
by the disapproval which flashed itself across events 
or doings that seemed to him unworthy, insincere — 
as concerning a Fourth of July celebration : — 

" How greatly have we honored our fathers who 
procured us that in which we glory ! With what 
complacency must Washington now be looking on us 
who have forgotten the ' God of battles ' { Why not 
render tribute to whom tribute is due ? Bacchus can- 
not be the author of our independence." 

Annual examinations followed. Life grew more 
intense, and Halsey's scorn of all sham, of all per- 
forming for appearance is increasingly manifest : — 

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'* There is great excitement nowadays about the 
' Old Hospital ' as, in common parlance, we term the 
academy. Examination is near at hand, and though 
the fate of each individual is, ere this, decided, there 
is something rousing to some minds in that it is soon 
to be known and that in public. Certain portions of 
the book with which we are already quite familiar are 
selected as those in which we are to be examined! 
And thus we are to aid in increasing the reputation of 
the academy ! A ridiculous imposition on the public 
and the parents of those attending there. 

" There was no school to-day, so as to give the little 
urchins an opportunity to breathe the fresh air and 
clean themselves preparatory to the wonderful exami- 
nation. A greater account could not be made of the 
greatest exhibition imaginable than is of this vexatious 
examination. I, however, feel very little concern or 
anxiety about any appearance or show. I shall per- 
form my part as well as I can, and trouble myself no 

Then came the exhibition — the marching two by 
two, decorated with badges, preceded by martial 
music and followed by teachers, trustees, and citizens; 
the exercises in the First Church, and then the climax 
of it all — the prizes. 

I wonder if it grieved those merry boys and girls 
that the stranger among them should receive more 

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than they all. Was it hard for them to understand 
that this quiet boy from Hawaii who studied when 
they played, who thought when they were thoughtless 
— that this boy, so much less American than they by 
birth, was yet more truly American than most of them 
in noble love- for America, in devotion, to duty, in 
improvement of opportunity? Perhaps neither they 
nor he appreciated yet the difference. Certainly there 
is no self-conscious approval in the simple record : — 

" There were in all sixteen speakers, and the best 
speaker received a premium selected for that purpose. 
After all had finished came the distribution of premi- 
ums. I received three : ' The Orator's Own Book' for 
algebra, ' Holiday Tales ' in writing, and ' Croley's 
Selections from British Poets' for the best speech 
of the whole. My spirits and strength have been 
screwed up to this point, and now they give way. I 
am as completely deprived of any youthful vivacity as 
I ever was. These examinations do not agree with 
me. So farewell, school ; welcome, welcome vacation !" 

The great event of this vacation was a visit to 
Auburn by John Quincy Adams ; and Halsey's 
spirited account of the affair throws a new touch of 
color into the picture he is painting of himself : — 

" As soon as Mr. Adams entered the church there 
was a general rush for good seats. And as every one 
pushed and ran, I pushed and ran also, so that, by 

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jumping one seat I got to the nearest possible seat to 
the stage. The stage was the one on which we made 
our speeches." Then in parenthesis there is the 
shrewd deduction, " The statesman and orator is but 
little removed from the schoolboy." 

"... After he had finished speaking, when about 
halfway down the aisle, a little child two or three 
years old attracted his notice, which he immediately 
lifted up and kissed, to the infinite amusement of 
those assembled. After that I saw several mothers 
trying to get their children into his notice, but all 
' the little children ' were not ' suffered to come unto ' 
him. Seeing so many pressing forward to shake 
hands, many smaller than myself, and as I knew the 
ceremony to be a simple one, the spirit of enthusiasm 
was infused into my veins, and I pressed forward also 
to receive a share of the blessing. I can now say 
to the day of my death : ' I have seen John Quincy 
Adams and shaken hands with him ' ! " 

Vacation came to an end. The boy was rested and 
eager for school. And reversing the refrain of a 
month before, he now writes: "Farewell vacation. 
Welcome, welcome school." 

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RUNNING parallel with his school life and, 
indeed, closely interwoven with the history of 
it, is the very sad story of the spiritual suffering 
through which Halsey was at the same time passing. 
The pathos of the minute journal record of it is the 
fact, which seems evident from the beginning, that 
he was a Christian through the whole of it, and that 
the questioning, the self -distrust, the torment of mind 
and soul which he endured were but the natural out- 
come of a morbid theology fermenting in the mind 
of a highly organized, self-depreciative child. It 
was, indeed, on a sternly anthropomorphic view of 
God that he was spiritually nurtured ; a theology 
which emphasized the wrath of God and the horrors 
of hell, and finally, as a test question, asked him 
whether, "If he knew he were doomed to hell, he 
would still determine to serve God ? " 

In turning these yellow pages we are increasingly 
impressed by the fact that Halsey's soul was utterly 
alone when he wrote them. His parents were so far 
away that no letter could receive its^answer in less 


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than a year. His relatives in this country were 
necessarily strangers to him. Of his kindest friends 
Dr. Halsey was an overworked professor and Mrs. 
Halsey an invalid. His journal was, therefore, his 
only confidant, and through it we are able to follow 
the soul of a child as it gropes its way to God alone. 
The struggle began in 1842. 

" The Holy Spirit has been striving with me lately," 
he writes, " but I have resisted it. I would not have 
God to reign over me ; I sometimes think I really 
wish to be forgiven and have a new heart, yet I know 
my unwillingness is all that hinders me. I hardly 
know what to do. I am told to pray, but I cannot ; 
I can speak, it is true, but that is all. I do not feel 
penitent. I am afraid to die, afraid of God, and of 
the torments of hell, where I know I shall go, if I 
die as I am now." 

This was the beginning of the suffering which 
reached its climax almost a year later. Concerning 
the closing three months of the year he says : — 

" My time was so at m}^ own disposal during the 
whole of this period that I could make no excuse with 
respect to opportunities for reflection. I was six 
hours at school and almost the whole of the remainder 
of the day I had to myself. Mrs. Halsey was not at 
home and Dr. Halsey being absent at the seminary 
a great part of the time, I frequently sat for hours 

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in their room, engaged in reading and reflection. 
My feelings were disclosed to no one, nor have 
they been to this day, save in a letter to my 

We are thus made acquainted with surrounding 
conditions, and they show very little physical exercise, 
practically no companions, because he did not care 
for the usual sports of children, no older counselor, 
an intense Calvinistic theology, of which he had 
grasped more than does the ordinary child of fifteen, 
a keen imagination, sensitive conscience, and consec- 
utive hours and days and weeks for self-examination, 
self -accusation, and pain. The results which followed 
were to be expected. Indeed, given the conditions, 
one might have predicted the result. 

" From the twenty-second of October to the tenth 
of December," he continues, '' my feelings were such 
as never before or since. For the first few days I 
felt scarce any interest at all in things not immediately 
connected with religion. My studies afforded me no 
pleasure or relief. I envied the birds and inanimate 
objects their state ; and I do not know but truth will 
warrant me in saying I in reality thought myself no 
longer ' a prisoner of hope ! ' 

" It surprised me that my fellow students who were 
not professed Christians could be so thoughtless and 
trifling when hell was before them." 

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At this time he passed through a crisis of emotion 
which he describes as " agony." 

" October 22, 1843. I arose this morning as usual 
a little beforj six and aided in the necessary labors 
of the commencing day. After breakfast I occupied 
myself by reading in my Bible, and as I read I began 
seriously to think whose service I should enter, the 
service of God or of Satan. Had any one asked me 
which I should prefer dying in the service of, or which 
I really intended to be the servant of, I should 
unhesitatingly have replied : ' That of God ' ; and it 
was indeed my intention to choose him; but before 
doing so formally I thought it proper to count the 
costs, that I might clearly understand what I took 
upon myself. 

" Before commencing, however, I knelt and prayed 
— was it prayer ? — that I might have a true idea of 
the Christian duties and that the Holy Spirit might 
aid me in my decision. I then attempted to ' call in 
my wandering thoughts ' and collect my mind, that 
I might not go heedlessly and ignorantly to work. 

" My mind ran over several of the duties which 
would be required of me and which the world, as well 
as God, would expect me to perform; but in some 
way now forgotten my attention was called off. I 
began to think about other things, and my attention 
was not arrested till the bells began to ring for 

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morning service, when I went to my room to get my 
cloak preparatory to going. But suddenly as I was 
putting on my cloak ' I am lost ' crowded itself among 
my truant thoughts. 'I am lost. I did not choose 
God and his service. My day of grace is past.' 
Such thoughts as these rushed upon me like a torrent, 
and so powerfully did the thought force itself upon 
my mind, an effort did not shake it off. 

" I paused a moment in the act of placing the cloak 
on my shoulders. I knew not what to think of it. 
At first I attempted not to heed it, as I perceived it 
began to agitate me greatly. But I could not divert 
my mind. I experienced such sensations in those few 
moments as I hope never to have again. They were 
of horror and fear. I was in the greatest agitation. 
I cannot with words, and particularly on paper, describe 
ray feelings. Perspiration began to start from my 
brow. And in my agony I knelt down by my bed to 
implore, if it were possible, mercy from Him whom 
I had offended. But I found it impossible. I could 
not summon my wandering thoughts together. And 
then the idea of addressing him was not connected 
with any hope. For how could I hope for mercy from 
one I had so deeply offended ? 

*'This all passed through my mind in the space of 
five minutes, when I joined the family going to the 
house of God. When walking, my mind was a little 

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drawn off, but looking on passing objects I felt as 
if I should never behold them with pleasure and 
gayety as before. In church my feelings rose to their 
former intensity and, if possible, higher. I could 
not sit still and heard but detached portions of the 

'' My feelings did not rise again during the day, but 
they were of a melancholy character and so continued, 
effecting nothing because ' there was no hope and no 
use in attempting.' " 

After this Halsey suffered every day. There was, 
it is true, fluctuation in his feelings, degrees of inten- 
sity to the pain. Yet the pain itself was constant. 
He believed that if he were not living in such hardened 
rebellion against God, no day would pass without 
definite thought on what he terms '' the lost condition " 
of his soul. That days did thus pass was proof to 
himself that he had outlived all possibility of repent- 
ance, that he had sinned away his "day of grace"; 
and his suffering was measured by the enormity of 
this calamity. 

The prevailing tone of the journal during these 
months is best shown when he began to read Baxter's 

" In commencing this book," he writes, "I have a 
variety of feelings. I almost fear to read it, lest, 
through the extreme and wonderful hardness of my 

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heart, I should still continne m my sins, and thus it 
should prove a ' savour of death unto death.' 

" It is with the greatest surprise that I look at my- 
self. I know that I must die, that I am a sinner, that 
I cannot escape deserved punishment but by closing in 
with the offers of mere}' made by the only begotten Son 
of the Father, and I believe I understand the way of 
salvation ; yet there is something, I know not what, 
unless it is my wicked heart, which prevents me, and 
which I have reason to fear will be my ruin. 

" What infatuation ! 'T is suflacient to terrify the 
boldest sinner. And yet I walk on, on the very mar- 
gin of the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone, 
as careless and unconcerned as though with the fool I 
said 'There is no God and no soul.' Well may the 
angels look and be astonished ! Not all my guilt sub- 
dues me, nor my great danger, nor yet the compassion 
of a Redeemer in dying, nor the unparalleled long- 
suffering of a merciful God. ' Oh ! wretched man 
that I am ! ' my sins increasing, my heart hardening, 
my time shortening, death approaching, hell gaping, 
and my doom preparing! Nothing but the grace of 
God can save me. ' Create in me a new heart,' and 
make me what thou wouldst have me to be." 

Then soon after : — 

''At times I imagine I am given up of God, and I 
feel a sort of melancholy despair, while at other times 

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I am in great agony. Yet, after all these fears and 
resolves and, I cannot but hope, strivings of the Spirit, 
I continue in my sins, in my extraordinary rebellion 
against my Maker, so that I have good ground to fear 
that I have grieved or shall grieve away the Spirit and 
be forever lost. Oh, may this never be the case with 
me ! May I see my many sins in something of that 
light in which Gt)d sees them ! I do not realize the 
state I am in, or I could take no peace day or night." 

Through these months of keen introspection not a 
breath of hope had reached him; and the depth of 
his woe, as we have seen, was the agonized desire of 
his soul for repentance and forgiveness and the belief 
that, in spite of himself, the hardness of his heart 
alone prevented peace and pardon. To himself his 
case seemed hopeless, and he blamed himself alone. 

At last, however, hope came to him for a moment, 
" a delusive hope " he sadly called it ; and though in 
simple words that have no hope in them he tells us how 
it came and how it went again, still we see at once a 
promise and a sign that day is approaching : — 

'' On Sabbath, the tenth of this month," he writes, 
" after the tea dishes were removed and the family 
worship over, Mr. Seymour, a theological student, 
requested me to remain a few moments. He asked 
me if I would kneel down with him and promise God 
that I would serve him and from that time forward 

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live wholly for him. I hesitated. I knew not what 
to do. I was unprepared for it. It was reasonable. 
It was what I ought to do. Yet I dared not do it. 
It would be more correct should I say I would 
not. My blood rushed into my face. I was greatly 
excited and it was with diflSiculty I could bring my 
mind to think on it for a moment. 

" My mind reverted to my feelings on the twenty- 
second of October. The thought occurred to me : 
* There still is hope. If you repent now, you may be 
saved, and this may be the last time the Spirit will 
ever strive with you; the last opportunity you will 
ever have.' I tried to collect my thoughts to make an 
effort, but could not. The frequency of my making 
such resolves came up. I thought these would be like 
the rest, mere words or thoughts, not the firm resolves 
of the heart. As I said then : ' I dare not say No, 
yet cannot say Yes ; ' I could not come to any decision. 

" We then knelt down. Mr. Seymour offered 
prayer and I followed him ; after which he advised 
me to retire to my room and give myself away 

" I was occupied during the evening with my own 
thoughts. I ran over the ground several times, count- 
ing the costs, and brought myself to the point whether 
I would or would not do it, which I answered in the 
affirmative. After this point was settled in my mind 

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I went alone and, as I thought, yielded my heart to 
God, and, as I hope, resolved to seek and strive to 
enter into the kingdom of heaven. 

" My feelings now assumed a very diflferent aspect. 
They were entirely changed. Instead of feeling that 
I was lost, 1 was full of joy and hope. I felt as a 
new creature, and was tempted to hope that I was 
a Christian. Since then I have passed day after day 
with an indefinite hgpe. I have scarcely dared bring 
myself to the test, lest I should find my heart not 
right before God, till yesterday, when I think I found 
sufiScient to disperse all such hope. Every day reveals 
more and more the deceitfulness of my own heart. 
And yet I have been flattering myself that I was a 
child of God and an heir of heaven ! " 

Five days later we read the closing words of the 
closing year. As usual I quote but. a small part of 
what is written : — 

*' Sunday, December 31, 1843. It is ten o'clock. 
But two hours remain of 1843. Soon another year 
will have commenced. But who knows whether I 
shall live to see it ? Oh, who? None but God. Let 
me then improve the remaining part of the year in 

"I have lately indulged in the hope that I have 
received pardon for my sins. I have, however, after 
much thought not discovered suflScient evidence to 

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induce me to rely on it. No, I fear I am still unrecon- 
ciled to God, that he is still angry with me. It is just. 
It is proper. But how can I remain a moment in 
peace ? Is God angry with me and I not concerned ? 
God displeased with me and I insensible? This is 
a mystery. There are, however, moments when I am 
really tempted to believe I am a child of God. I can 
think of nothing then as a test but which corresponds, 
as I think then, with my feelings. I then look forward 
to the judgment day and think that, through the blood 
of Christ, I need fear nothing. I think of death, and 
picture to myself a peaceful departure from this 
world. But oh, the thought will intrude itself, for it 
is indeed unwelcome : ' What if this is all a delusion ! 
You may yet be in your sins. Satan may only be 
deceiving you with these vain hopes, the better to 
secure you as his victim.' Yes, and this may be true. 
It is in truth the most probable supposition. Oh, 
what am I to do if this be the case ? I am lost ! I am 
lost I 1 AM lost! 

"The clock strikes eleven. Only one hour left! 
And if the end of this year is to be the close of my 
earthly career, how soon will it close ? This may be 
the case. The decree may have gone forth with 
I'espect to me : ' Cut it down. Why cumbereth it the 
ground? Behold, these fifteen years I come seeking 
fruit on this fig tree and find none.' 

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** And what will be my condition in the future 
world? I pause to address myself to my Maker, my 
Saviour, my Redeemer. May he in his infinite mercy 
deliver me from my uncertainty, and may I be brought 
to action before it shall be forever too late ! . . . 

'' But the year has gone. Its last moments have 
fled. It has gone. Its accounts are sealed for eter- 
nity. And what a record will they present at the last 
day ! One that I shall be pleased with ? Ah ! no. 
It will present one continual sin. All its pages are 
blackened with sin — sin against the Almighty. It 
has gone . . . ' with the days beyond the flood.' 

" May my New Year's present to the Lord be ' my 
body a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, 
which is my reasonable service.' 

"Luther Halset GtrLiCK. 
"January 1, 1844. Midnight." 

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A S the sobs of a child grow gradually fainter and 
J-^^ then are changed to smiles, so it happened 
with Halsey's spiritual suffering. It did not cease at 
once. Peace came to him slowly. There were sea- 
sons of discouragement when he deplored his weak- 
ness, his coldness, his unfaithfulness. And finally, 
having overcome much, he shuddered in the imagined 
presence of a new tormenting specter — spiritual 

After all, however, the real contest was between 
the powers of spirit and intellect. Each claimed his 
highest devotion. As rivals they already stood within 
the citadel, and now one and now the other was its 
master. And yet the higher power proved itself the 
stronger. For under and over and about all else was 
the spiritual yearning of his life — the note which 
sounds as an insistent undertone to all he writes. 
This is very distinctly heard when he announces 
as his ' ' Christian axiom '* the duty of each human 
being to choose his life work '' where talent and 
circumstances will enable him most to glorify God." 


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Because of this conviction, with all life and its possi- 
bilities before him, he dedicates iiimself to foreign 
missions. His reasons are the willing nations, the 
greater need, the hopeful work; while shining as a 
calcium light over all is the example of his parents. 

*' Were reasons valid in their case," he exclaims, 
^^ which are not in mine? Shall it be said that the son 
of a missionary was so dandled on the lap of ease 
and indulgence that he thinks it a hard matter to 
make sacrifice for his God ; that the son of a mission- 
ary is not so good a missionary as the son of a New 
Jersey farmer or the daughter of a Puritan? Was 
the command 'Go ye into all the world' addressed 
more particularly to my parents than to me ? I answer 
to each and all a conscience-approving ' No.* " 

Such was the inspiration from his parents ! But 
there was loyalty aldo to heathen neighbors. 

" I was bom among the heathen," he says. '* They 
are, as it were, my countrymen. And now shall I 
forsake them ? No : to a certain degree I will claim 
the whole heathen world as my countrymen." 

Thus, quite unconsciously, did Halsey prophesy of 
his future. And thus soberly did he take his place 
with the workers of the world. 

*' I must now be a man," he continues with unas- 
sumed gravity. ''I must be sober, stable, persever- 
ing, living for eternity — which is the part of true 

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manliness. I must acquire complete control over my 
thoughts. This I have not. I must be rigid in my 
self-examination and thorough in my self-knowledge. 
I would live, as Brainard expresses it, ' on the brink 
of eternity.* My communion with God must be 

These were lofty aspirations sincerely held. Yet 
side by side with them there was constant fear of 
self-deception. And to help him answer the question 
of his own honesty he read " The Deceived Professor 
Undeceived." After that he writes : — 

^^ It seemed to me as if my submission was for the 
sake of pardon; as if my love — if indeed I exer- 
cised any — was because I thought I was to be saved." 

For further help he now went to a friendly theo- 
logical student ; and here he met with the astonish- 
ing query as to whether "if he knew he were doomed 
to hell, he would be determined still to love and serve 
God." This was no astonishment. to himself, however, 
for it harmonized with what he already believed and 
it therefore helped him. Later he talked with Dr. 
Halsey, met the session of the church, passed the 
church examination, and then in the quiet of his own 
room cried out in despair: "Oh, that I might know 
my own heart I " 

The strenuousuess of this desire is seen on the 
nineteenth of January, 1845. It is two o'clock Sab- 

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bath morning and in his small room, dark and cold 
and lonely, he has risen "to prepare by sober thought 
and prayer for the coming ordinance of the Lord's 

Think what it meant to him ! The solemn height 
of all his struggles gained at last ! Remember what 
he had suffered and be not surprised that with this 
suffering as a background he should now have looked 
for the seal of his acceptance in an experience as 
bright as that was dark. Yet as he looked for spirit- 
ual ecstasy that morning and guided the pen through 
which he did his thinking, body and soul alike seemed 
cold. No rapture from heaven was sent him and he 
could not fly outside himself to find it. The wings 
of his soul seemed broken. He did not realize how 
imperative are physical laws nor how sadly even 
spiritual possibilities are limited by physical condi- 
tions. He was thinking, and praying, and writing 
when he needed sleep and rest. And because he did 
not understand why he lacked emotion we have this 
closing page of his early spiritual history : — 

' ' In prayer since I arose I have had none of those 
'drawings out of soul — going after Christ — which 
Christians so often speak of. I have none of that 
peace and joy which I hoped to have enjoyed. All 
seems cold and chill. I am surprised at myself. 

' ' What ! Am I about to commemorate the dying 

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love of a Redeemer, yet feel no emotion of love to that 
Redeemer? Feel no thankfulness to him from whom 
I hope I have received pardon ? Oh ! let me pray and 
meditate. I cannot go to the table of the Lord feel- 
ing thus. Would it not be sinful? I have thought I 
would renew my dedication to God, and put it in 
writing that it may make a deeper impression upon 
me. This dedication is nothing but the performance 
of my duty — that which I should do were I irre- 
trievably doomed to hell. I am about to address my 
Maker. May T be suitably afraid and solemn ! " 

The self-dedication that follows is so long that only 
a small part of it can be quoted. But bear in mind 
that it was written at two o'clock in the morning by 
a boy of sixteen who was overshadowed by the awful 
thought that he deceived himself — that in spite of 
his aspiration and his hopes he was not a Christian. 

The formality of the covenant and of the prayer 
that breathes through it is no doubt explained by the 
views of God which Halsey entertained, and by the 
religious reading he had done. We see that it was 
written for future reference : — 


" Eternal and unchangeable Jehovah ; thou great 
Creator of heaven and earth, and adorable Lord of 
angels and men ! I desire with the deepest humilia- 

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lion and abasement of soul to fall down, at this time, 
in thine awful presence, and earnestly pray that thou 
wilt penetrate my very heart with a suitable sense of 
thine unutterable and inconceivable glories. 

*' ' Who am I, O Lord, or what is my house,' what 
is my nature or desert that I should speak of this, 
and desire that I may be one party in a covenant 
where thou, ' the King of kings, and Lord of lords,* 
art the other? But, O Lord, great as is thy majesty, 
so also is thy mercy. Behold, therefore, O Lord, I 
come unto thee. Receive, I beseech thee, thy poor 
revolted creature who desires nothing in the world so 
much as to be thine. 

" Hear, O God of heaven, and record it in the book 
of thy remembrance, that henceforth I am thine, 
entirely thine. From this day do I solemnly renounce 
all the ' former lords ' which have had dominion over 
me, every sin and every desire, and bid in thy name 
an eternal defiance to the powers of hell. To thee 
do I consecrate all the remainder of my time upon 
earth, and beg that thou wouldst instruct and influence 
me, so that, whether my abode here be longer or 
shorter, every day and hour may be used in such a 
manner as shall most effectually promote thine honor 
and subserve the schemes of thy gracious providence. 

"In this course, O blessed God, would I steadily 
persevere to the very end of my life ; earnestly 

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praying that every future day of it may supply the defi- 
ciencies and correct the irregularities of the former. 

" I leave, O Lord, to thy management and direc- 
tion all I possess and all I wish. Continue or remove 
what thou hast given me. Bestow or refuse what I 
Imagine 1 want, as thou, Lord, shalt see good. 

" Use me, O God, I beseech thee, as the instrument 
of thy glory, and honor me so far as, either by doing 
or suffering what thou shalt appoint, I may bring some 
revenue of praise to thee and benefit to the world in 
which I dwell. And when I have done and borne thy 
will upon earth, call me from hence at what time and 
in what manner thou pleasest. Only grant that in my 
dying moments, and in the near approach of eternity, 
I may remember these my engagements to thee, and 
may employ my latest breath in thy service. 

" And do thou, O Lord, when thou seest the agonies 
of dissolving nature upon me, remember this covenant 
too, even though I should then be incapable of recollect- 
ing it. Look down then, O my heavenly Father, with a 
pitying eye upon thy languishing, thy dying child ; 
place thine everlasting arms under me for support ; put 
strength and confidence into my departing spirit, and 
receive it to the embrace of thine everlasting love. 

'* I desire to live and die as with my hand on that 
hope. Amen. Luther Halsey Gulick." 

''January 19, 1845." 

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rpHROUGH 1846 and until the fall of 1847 Halsey 
-L took special studies with Dr. Schapps, of 
Amboy, New Jersey. These studies were in prepara- 
tion for both collegiate and medical work ; this combi- 
nation being made early as a possible help to himself, 
for he was not strong ; and the journal unconsciously 
reveals a touch of comic pathos in the union of condi- 
tions diametrically opposed to sound health with this 
strenuous preparation for a doctor's life. Determined 
as always to improve the time, and evidently having 
no counselor near to advise him, he rises early to 
study and studies late. Religious life and emotion 
grow cold, and his lamentation is : — 

"I do not rise early enough — though I rise with 
the first dawn of day ^- to have sufficient time to 
perform my devotional duties in such a manner as I 
should. And I do not take time at another hour 
because in haste to begin studying." 

Going to bed late, he still rises at any time between 
three and five, yet can understand neither the " irre- 
sistible drowsiness " that oppresses him nor the brain 


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that *' seems dull," nor his " undevotlonal frame of 
mind." Hours and moments grow increasingly pre- 
cious, but he is "overcome with sleepiness," "unable 
to study," is " drowsy in church," and mourns that he 
*' should so dishonor God in public." He questions 
whether he is not growing " lukewarm," " cold," and 
calls upon himself to "beware," to remember "the 
cloud of witnesses," "to press on in Christ's strength." 

Dyspepsia troubles him. He passes through a 
course of strict dieting, but diminishes not his studies. 
He faints away, goes home ill, and grows discouraged. 
But the record reads : — 

" Woke at two. French till six. Anatomy till 
twelve. Drawing till half -past four." 

Over and over again there is similar account of 
study when sleep was what he needed. Indeed, these 
months were devoted to relentless study and to unwit- 
ting transgression of physical laws. Yet a growing 
consciousness of failing health was forced upon him ; 
and at last, by peremptory medical command, he 
stopped studying and sought the motherly care of his 
ever-loving aunt Eliza, bis mother's only sister. 

Thus far Halsey had looked forward with unwaver- 
ing expectation to a full collegiate course as prelimi- 
nary to his professional studies. Now, however, the 
outlook is discouraging : — 

" I can study no longer. Of course college will be 

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deferred another year. But by that time I think I 
may hope to enter the junior class." Though three 
months of farm life had helped him, and though 
studies were resumed in the fall, still he was far from 
well. And by the following spring the final decision 
was made : — 

"Dr. Halsey says that, as I am, I could not sit 
down to a regular course of classical collegiate studies. 
Of course I acquiesce with the most perfect readiness. 
There is no use in attempting what one cannot do. 
So then, what will be the sum of my education will 
depend altogether or in great measure on my health. 
If I have health, I can study whatever is thought best ; 
and it will make but little difference where I am to 
study if I can but have the books." 

In view of the situation, Dr. Halsey advised in 
favor of a medical course first, and after that theolog- 
ical study, if health should then allow it. The result 
was that Halsey entered the New York College of 
Physicians and Surgeons in the fall of 1847. 

And now, though medicine was his chosen profes- 
sion, yet pulsing through all the record of his studies 
we feel the enthusiasm which was his in other lines of 
thought. The note he makes of outside reading in 
1847 proves this : Campbell on Systematic Theology ; 
Douglass on Missions ; Kitto's Palestine ; Life of 
Byron ; Dr. Madden on Infirmities of Grenius ; Mason's 

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Ecclesiastical History; Taylor's Theory of Another 
Life ; Lord Brougham's Statesmen ; Shelley ; Keats ; 
Burns ; Cambray on Eloquence ; D'lsraeli's Essays ; 
Milman's Fall of Jerusalem ; Fenelon on Eloquence ; 
several of Shakespeare's plays ; Life of Sir J. Rey- 
nolds ; Hodge's Way of Life ; Life of Gibbon ; Foster 
on Decision of Character ; Life of Dr. Arnold. 

With this but a part of one year's reading, we can 
appreciate the fierce determination which was neces- 
sary to hold him to the work of medical study. 
Indeed, his own words testify to this. Recognizing 
the tendency but realizing present duty he says ; — 

*'I am not a physician in my habit of mind. I 
must make myself so, whatever else I am. Medical 
subjects in their practical details must form much of 
my study. Medicine is my profession, in which I 
must perfect myself — medicine and theology prima- 
rily ; natural science and composition secondarily for 

Reaching around all other interests was his ever- 
growing absorbing enthusiasm for public speaking. 
Signs of this had appeared before. But now, in his 
young manhood, they were multiplied. Touches of 
ambition also came to him — a desire to reach people, 
to move them, to be felt and recognized as a force in 
their lives. To us who read it is as if a new element 
of character were suddenly introduced ; as if a new 

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adjustment of conditions were suddenly required. 
And Halsey, too, is perplexed. Is this burning, high 
ambition a part of the noble manhood he has longed 
for? Can it, too, find a place in the fabric of his 
consecrated life ? His nineteenth birthday shows this 
perplexity, and with it the new adjustment. 

" Here I sit with irresolution and prodigality of 
time ; an itching after fame, a despicable one. Oh, 
had I a friend, I 'd open my heart ! My pen 's my 
tongue, this page my friend. I cannot desire to be 
unknown. I envy the post of a Chalmers. I wish to 
acquire those qualities which will enable me to lead, 
while at the same time I wish to be led by piety 
and reverence, and implicit confidence in divine 

At this point came opportunity to speak each Sab- 
bath in a mission chapel on Fifty-first Street. He 
gladly accepted, and with clear self-knowledge quietly 
states again his own ambition with reference to public 
speaking : — 

"The whole bent of my mind for years, I might 
say for almost my whole life, has been in this direc- 
tion, and I still have strong predilections for it, 
stronger than for anything else.'* 

Later he emphasizes the point : — 

" The whole passion of my soul for many years has 
been to become a preacher. I feel confident of powers 

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which, if properly directed, can secure me favorable 

Will powers be ' ' properly directed " in a land where 
no audience appreciates, where no mind will under- 
stand him? Yet Halsey Gulick was moving toward 
heathenism so deep that neither audience nor thinkers 
were anywhere within it. 

In the meantime, however, he goes to hear Mr. 
Forrest in Macbeth with the avowed purpose of study- 
ing eloquence. He buys a life of Whitefield and 
studies this also to learn the source of his power in 
public speaking. Then, best of all, he attends a 
course of six lectures on Shakespeare by Mr. Richard 
A. Dana, an event which he pronounces '' the greatest 
intellectual treat I have enjoyed for a long time.'* 

It may be that these lectures laid for him the foun- 
dation of that devotion to Shakespeare which was an 
enthusiasm always, a devotion which grew into an 
intimacy so close that in later years his children as 
little dreamed that his traveling outfit was complete 
without his well-worn Shakespeare as without the weU- 
worn Bible. 

During this time he found pleasant friends among 
Union Seminary theological students. " Men of 
choice spirit," he calls them ; " men with whom I 
can feel and act." Yet though he had these friends, 
he often suffered from au intensity of depression 

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which he accepted as an inevitable part of his life, his 
inheritance. Just what this depression was we are 
not told; but shadows which it cast prove its reality. 

" I know I shall never be that jolly, laughing being 
many another one is, for I have such frequent returns 
of my constitutional depression of spirits as to prevent 
this. But if I may be useful, I shall be happy." 

"I am alone. The possibilities of my future life 
oppress me, though I must acknowledge that I am 
now in one of my turns of low-spiritedness. These I 
have to make constant provision for. Oh, it is a 
source of relief to me to think of a coming stage of 
existence when I shall be relieved from these physical 
disabilities ! " 

This element of sadness does, indeed, thread itself 
through much of his recorded life. Due in part to 
physical conditions, and in greater part to his sensitive 
nature subjected to constant overwork, the resulting 
mental suffering is none the less real to him. But he 
learns to accept himself as he is, and in 1849 is 
pleased because he " begins to see the boy gradually 
wearing off," because " the fermentation of youth is 
subsiding." Yet, since the beginning, the world and 
his journal have seen wondrous little of the boy in this 
serious-minded youth. 

Side by side with these touches of pain, with the 
record of lectures attended, books read and efforts 

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made for earning money, are constant spirited notes 
of news from Europe, from California, from the world. 
And as a background to 'the devotion with which he 
still consecrated himself to foreign missionary work 
there is touching significance in the throbbing interest 
with which he thus watched the movement of the 
nations. He was keenly alive to each flash of news 
that came ; the more so perhaps as the months in 
hurrying by forced him relentlessly toward the point 
where suddenly he should drop out of all this life and 
action, and on some lonely island should wait for news 
that could only reach him once a year — that might, 
indeed, not reach him even then. 

Now, however, he is part of this intensity, and his 
journals alone would introduce one fairly to the great 
events of these years. We watch Austria and Ger- 
many in 1848, and the French Republic as she elects 
her president. We follow the Pope in his hegira from 
Rome, and riBalize the wild enthusiasm with which the 
discovery of gold in California is greeted, and the 
indignation of the country over a supposed secret 
codicil to our treaty with Mexico. 

Items from the whole mission world also steal their 
way into these pages, while quiet comments of ap- 
proval and disapproval demonstrate already the calm 
strength of the growing mind and the depth of his 
intex'est in all missionary problems. What else was, 

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indeed, to be expected? For now, as in the begin- 
ning, the compass of bis own life pointed unswerv- 
ingly to missionary work, to 'work for others, for the 
most needy wherever they might be. Years before 
he had written : — 

*'I cannot now conceive of anything, if life and 
health are spared, that will deter me from becoming a 
foreign missionary. In accordance with this purpose 
I am determined nothing shall be allowed to pass 
unimproved which shall render me more useful." 
And this thouglit dominated the years. 

Already we have found him speaking each Sabbath 
on Fifty-first Street. Later he helped org$inize a 
Sunday-school in the same place ; and recognizing 
the unity of all work for others, he at once sees the 
world's noble mission field stretched out before him. 
Its door is open. He stands upon the threshold. 

"Thus do I begin my missionary life. I hope it 
will not cease till life itself ceases. I am a missionary 
now as much as I ever shall be. A habit of doing 
good neglected now will never be perfectly formed." 

Uniting this home work to foreign fields was the 
meeting of the American Board in Pittsfield, Mass., 
in 1849. Here Halsey listened with quiet discrimi- 
nation to those who had toiled on the field and to those 
who, at home, had theorized. Here too he met again 
young people from Hawaii, playmates once, fellow 

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students now in New England. With Hiram Bingham 
he walked to Chester. With Warren Chamberlain 
he climbed Mount Holyoke, and, seated there above 
the world, these two young men looked out on 
life as seriously as they studied the picture before 
them. They "talked of youthful days and future 
prospects." Then, with the past of childhood behind 
them and the future of life rising high before them, 
they knelt and prayed there on the mountain. 

Thenceforward, boys who had inspired one another 
in their Honolulu spelling school became a larger 
inspiration to each other. Halsey Gulick and Sereno 
Bishop and Hiram Bingham, schoolmates then, are 
correspondents now. And Halsey 's letters, prized and 
kept through many years, are before us to-day. Each 
carries its message. Each touches, through query or 
exclamation, the keynote of his life ; and all ring as 
earnestly to-day as they sounded forty years ago when 
they were written. Even now he pleads for Polynesia : 

"Fellow Polynesians, we are bound by double ties 
of fellowship. And shall we not be brought under 
a third bond of unity by engagement in the same life 
of evangelization of Polynesia?" 

Indeed, through journals and through letters, we 
increasingly realize that the unshaken, ever-strength- 
ening purpose of his life was to be a missionary to 

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" The elevation of Polynesia ! For this I will live, 
for this die. It is but my duty. It will be my pleas- 
ure. I may not do much. I may not have the capac- 
ity. I may not be allowed the length of life. But to 
do all I can, whether much or little, is my obligation 
and my aim ; the elevation politically, socially, intel- 
lectually, religiously, the last accomplished securing 
tlie rest ; therefore it shall be my main endeavor." 

With this goal before him, Halsey bent every energy 
to its attainment, and on the ninth of March, 1850, he 
was graduated in medicine, and took what he terms 
the " solemn, imperative oath." * 

Thus another milestone of life was passed ; and 
soberly facing the future, he wondered where the next 
would find him. 

^ For the sake of lessened expense he had previously transferred his 
connection from the College of Physicians and Surgeons to the Univer- 
sity of New York. 

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DURINGr his three years of medical study Halsey 
had attended various courses of lectures in 
Union Theological Seminary, where Dr. Halsey was 
at the time lecturing on ecclesiastical history. Much 
of his reading had also been in theological directions, 
and now he planned to begin systematic theological 
study. This was also Dr. Halsey *s advice. 

Just here it is interesting to know of an offer of 
help made to and promptly refused by him because 
it involved pledged allegiance to Princeton theology. 
He makes this vigorous statement of the case to his 
parents : — 

"If I go to a seminary at all, as go I will if I can, 
I go to examine these subjects of dispute. Mr. D., 
who last fall offered to do much for me at Princeton, 
told me they did not want any one who could not act 
cordially with them and who would prove recreant to 
Old Schoolism. But for this I should now be pre- 
paring to enter Princeton Seminary. It is more than 
I ever will do — to constrain myself to think in any 
prescribed way. If facts carefully thought over 


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bring me to the creed of my ancestors, all is well, 
and I will profess it ; if not, not. I have bid myself 
act as my instructors have Jaught me until such time 
as I can examine the subjects carefully for myself. 

"I am a Protestant by education, and I have so 
far imbibed its principles as to refuse to admit into 
my religious faith any article I have not fully and 
independently examined. As to Old and New School- 
ism, I do not know which I shall be ; indeed, I am 
sure I shall not allow myself to be involved in the 
disputes of a past decade. On this I am resolved : if 
receiving help from any source requires of me that 
I think no otherwise than as the benefactors think, 
I shall promptly decline their benefaction. This I 
have done in reference to Mr. D." 

At this point, however, an important crisis in 
Hawaiian mission history changed the course of 
Halsey Gulick's life. 

During the summer of 1850 he learned that a 
mission to some of the Micronesian Islands had been 
projected and that the Hawaiian Island Mission was 
to act upon it the following May. In view of this he 
was greatly moved. Through it he saw the possible 
accomplishment of his most cherished desire — "A 
Hawaiian mission with Hawaiian missionaries, of 
whom I should like to be one ! '* But opposing this 
there stood his other great hope for theological study. 

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for preparation for the life of a preacher. We imag- 
ine the strait 'twixt two in which he was placed, and 
we speculate as to influences which will weigh in the 
balance and determine the future for him. 

On the one hand was love of study and hope for 
greater usefulness through greater preparation ; on 
the other was the fact of a medical profession already 
entered upon and an immediate call to work in the 
field to which, through solemn dedication, he had 
already given himself. In his perplexity he consulted 
Dr. Anderson, then Foreign Secretary of the Ameri- 
can Board, and received advice against the added 
theological course, in favor of an early return to the 
Pacific, and in recommendation of an immediate 
application for appointment by the Board. Solemn 
advice for the older man to give to the younger, but 
conscientiously given, and with this thrown into the 
scales the weight on that side was heavier. 

Of himself alone was he now in doubt. "Am I 
ready?" But the hesitation did not last. "I am 
about decided to offer myself. Divine wisdom will, 
I hope, direct and control me." Then with the 
exultation of self-conquest, with the memory of pa- 
rental example shining around him, with a thrill in his 
voice, he adds: "Father, it is your own son who 
wishes to go to the heathen. Why should I withhold 
myself for the luxury of a few more years of study?" 

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And so the decision was bravely made and the 
formal offer of himself to the Board followed it. 

In view of his passion for books, his burning desire 
to be a preacher, and his incompleted course of study, 
we instinctively look for expressed regret or, at least, 
for some paragraph that shall distinctly speak of 
these shattered hopes as a sacrifice to duty ; but he 
does not write of any disappointment. The steps 
before him had seemed clearly marked, and he took 
them quietly and firmly, making no lamentation be- 
cause of others which might have been pleasanter; 
he only says : — 

'* Oh, I stand curious at the close of each day to 
know what the next shall reveal of divine mercy and 
wisdom ! It is a pleasure to trace the thread of 
divine plan which seems to run through my actions 
during the past year. I knew not the plan I was 
developing till now I see it in retrospection, and it is 
under this impression that I step forward cheerfully 
to meet the ever-coming future. I only see the few 
stepping-stones that are just before me id the dashing 
flood. I trust a Father's hand to direct my general 
course. I may die before the year expires, but this 
will, I hope, only hasten my emancipation from this 
defective body I am in. It will not check my happi- 
ness nor my usefulness, only perfect both." 

Then the official appointment came to "a new 

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mission which it is in contemplation to fit out from 
the Hawaiian Islands to some other group in the 
Pacific Ocean." 

But Halsey Gulick, Dr. Gulick now, was not to sail 
for almost a year yet. He spent this year — 1851 — 
in hospital practice in New York, in further study of 
Greek and Hebrew, in attending lectures, and in still 
continued indefatigable reading. 

During this year, also, he transferred his connection 
from the Presbyterian church on Houston Street to 
the Broadway Tabernacle, where Rev. J. P. Thompson 
was pastor. The reasons for the change were very 
plain to himself as he traced them, and quite as plain 
to us who follow now : — 

" I do this because in my future foreign missionary 
life I shall probably prefer and, indeed, be under the 
necessity of acting with my fellow missionaries on the 
Congregational basis ; and I should prefer becoming a 
little accustomed to it here. Furthermore, there is 
such occasional stress laid on the minutiae of the 
Calvinistic system by the different bodies of the 
Presbyterian body that I rebek I do not wish to feel 
myself as liable to the authoritative whims of weak- 
minded men. As I seem to see the usual tenor of 
Presbyterianism about me, it is representative but in 
form, in name. And authority is exercised over think- 
ing in a way I dislike. For myself I prefer thinking 

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freely, without alarm lest I think heterodoxy. Yet 
I shall look back with fondness to those examples of 
mild, patriarchal discipline by fathers and elders, which 
I shall ever regard as the beau-ideal of government." 

Later, in conversation with Dr. Thompson, he was 
advised to ask not only for license before he sailed for 
Micronesia, but for ordination as well. And we share 
with him the sense of exaltation which this antici- 
pated, authorized place in the wider field would give 
him. To be recognized by the Church as worthy to 
speak publicly and work for Christ ! To be not only 
licensed but ordained ! This was more than he had 
dared to hope for. Yet it had come to him unsought. 
And with thankfulness in his heart he exclaims : — 

" Thus is my way opened, and I may hope to have 
the prominent plan of my life accomplished." 

Then a council was called by the Broadway Taber- 
nacle. Among those present as delegates were Rev. 
William Patton, Rev. George B. Cheever, Rev. H. O. 
Schermerhorn, Rev. R. S. Storrs, Rev. Timothy 
Atkinson, and Rev. J. P. Thompson. Dr. Patton 
was chosen moderator,, and Dr. Cheever was the 
scribe. By these men, some, of them in their prime, 
some of them still young with all the glory of life 
before them, Dr. Gulick was examined and accepted 
as a fellow worker. This was on the fourth of Octo- 
ber, 1851. • 

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On the evening of the 5th, Sabbath evening, the 
consummation of all his preparation was reached. A 
large congregation had gathered in the Broadway 
Tabernacle, and kneeling for ordination, while the 
hands of good men rested on him, Dr. Gulick felt that 
he was crowned. Again he prayed ; and again he 
consecrated himself to the loneliness of Micronesia 
and to any work that God should give him anywhere. 

Before he sailed, however, still another great event 
was to widen his life and add increasing impetus to 
its natoral currents. This was his marriage. 

Perhaps his nearest previous approach to love was 
a breathing of romance which came to him one 
summer when he was eighteen. And though, as 
compared to that experience, he at the time pro- 
nounced '' romance but a shadow, poetry but a well- 
touched picture," still it came to an end. To comfort 
himself he assured his journal with philosophic calm 
that " though it is painful, the pains are those attend- 
ing a necessary amputation." 

In this connection various other items are full of 
significance. Once it is in reply to a letter from his 
mother : — 

" I sometimes love to read of those good old days 
when Abraham could say to his ' eldest sei-vant ' : ' Go 
unto my country, and to my kindred, and take a wife 
unto my son Isaac' No troublesome courtships then 

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— all done by proxy. Aye ; and those were the days 
of Rebekahs and Rachels. But hold — ^^ Rachel? No 
proxy there, I am sure. Am I a Jacob, and have I to 
work for my own wife ? May it not be a seven years' 
service ! So with a laugh and a prayer I dismiss the 
subject, which, by the way, is a fair exhibition of my 
feelings. I know the pleasure ; I dread the difficulty ; 
I fear the result ; and so most earnestly desire the 
favor of the Lord." 

A later comment reads : " As for courtship, woe is 
me ! I can never consent to waste my time ! " 

But after all, the human heart remained and its 
human requirement. That era passed, and serious 
thoughts came to him of a possible life companion. 

"My heart is full of emotion which I may not or 
cannot express. Oh for the time when I may have a 
friend to whom I may tell all ! " 

But he was not very sanguine, and one day there is 
dejection in his journal : — 

" Brainerd had no wife. Henry Martyn had no wife. 
Schwartz had no wife. Veiiderkemp had no wife, 
when he went out. Fisk had no wife. Parsons had 
no wife. Why need I be alarmed if I am to have 
none ? " 

Then he passed through a season of what he terms 
''haggard expectancy," but closes it with a hallelujah : 

" Joy and devout thankfulness are mine ! Miss 

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Louisa Lewis has yielded her assent, and consents to 
live with me and be my friend for life and my fellow 

Each day he grew happier, till, on the twenty- third 
of October, he writes : — 

"Joys accumulate! Happiness floods my soul! 
What shall I render to the Lord for all his benefits I 
Next week Wednesday I am to be married to her 
who I think has been appointed for me and for whom 
I was appointed. May the blessing of the Lord guide 
and accompany us ever, securing the constant con- 
tinuance of that endearment and pleasure we now 
experience I " 

The following week brought the wedding day with 
its emphasized happiness. And on the 30th are the 
happiest words in all these journal pages : — 

" Yesterday I was married to Miss Louisa Lewis ! 
I am happy ! I am happy ! There does not remain 
isin important wish ungratified. I am in the fruition 
of all that earth can render me. My only anxiety 
comes from imagining that such joy cannot be expected 
long to continue. Yet saddening providences will not 
destroy our happiness. No, naught but sin can, and 
against it we pray. We are husband and wife. We 
are fellow Christians. We are fellow missionaries, 
and we pray for blessing on each aspect of our lives." 

Louisa Lewis, now Mrs. Gulick, was born in New 

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York city on the tenth of November, 1830. Her 
grandfather, Robert Wardell, was one of the early 
dry-goods merchants of Wall Street. In his childhood. 
Canal Street, a canal then in the subnrbs of the city, 
was his skating ground. Louisa^ was the oldest 
daughter in the family of four sisters and one brother. 
In her childhood she had been familiarized with the 
thought of foreign missions by some neighbors who 
had returned from India — the first generation of the 
missionary family of Scudders. 

After studies carried on in Rutgers Seminary, New 
York city, and two winters of teaching in North Caro- 
lina, Louisa had for months before her marriage been 
engaged with her mother in city missionary work in 
New York. Her devotion to work for others and her 
forgetfulness of self had been marked characteristics 
since she was a child ; and when this new opening 
came for a larger work in a darker place she saw 
at once the guiding hand of Grod and was ready 
to be led. 

A printed account appearing at the time gives a 
word about the wedding and testifies to what Mrs. 
Gulick already was to those who knew her : — 

** Whether Dr. Gulick's wife knows fully what she 

1 Louisa's father, Junius Sidney Lewis, was gifted in couversatioD, 
brilliant in repartee, whole-souled, full of life and enterprise, a helpful 
Christian merchant. Her mother, Sarah Wnrdell Lewis, had been 
delicately nurtured, and was actiye always in Christian work. 

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has undertaken is a little doubtful ; yet she is not one 
likely to be disheartened or to shrink from danger. 
In the time of the cholera she was a ministering angel 
to many a suffering and dying family. She went from 
house to house of the poor^ where aid is most needed 
and most scantily given, and offered her assistance 
with no regard for the danger to herself. Such a 
woman is likely to do good wherever she may go." 

Then follows the query which so often meets this 
sort of self-sacrifice : — 

"Isn't it a little singular that persons who are 
remarkable not so much for physical adaptation as for 
intellectual superiority and real gentleness of soul, 
should so often be the ones to devote themselves to 
raising up tribes and nations where the human mind 
is an utter blank and desolation ? '' 

And picturing what the new life and surroundings 
must mean to this young couple, the writer breathes 
a prayer which we unconsciously make our own : — 

"May the sun's rays fall gently on their island 
home, and as they shut out the world from their hopes 
may they be more than the world to each other ! " 

As we have seen, Dr. and Mrs. Grulick were married 
on the twenty-ninth of October, 1851. Mrs. Gulick 
was almost twenty-one, her husband twenty-three, years 
old. On the eighteenth of November they sailed from 
Boston for the Hawaiian Islands. Friends were there 

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to say "Farewell" and "God speed you." To each 
it seemed a separation for life, Micronesia was so far 

As the yoang coaple stand on the deck of the small 
craft, we see fulfilled at last the semi-prophetic yearn- 
ing of years before when, longing for Martin Luther's 
opportunity, Luther Halsey Gulick had written : *' But 
those days are passed, and I must prepare for useful- 
ness in some other sphere, though it may be I shall 
yet have opportunity to ascertain what spirit I am of." 

And has not the opportunity come to him now? 

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rr^HIS company of missionaries was the last which 
-L the Board sent to the Pacific via Cape Horn. 
It included ten persons, six returning to the Hawaiian 
Islands, and four, Mr. and Mrs. Snow and Dr. and 
Mrs. Gulick, pioneers facing Micronesia. 

The Esther May was small, her cabin full, and to 
accommodate all the passengers an added room was 
fitted up below deck. This was separated by a sus- 
pended sheet from the cai^o of the bark. The prox- 
imity of sails, ropes, tar, barrels of fish, and barrels 
of pork was not an aesthetic inspiration to seasick 
passengers. Indeed, this sheet failed in various ways 
as a nonconductor, for sounds of scurrying mice, no 
less than scent of fish, and flesh, and tar, were clearly 
apprehended through it. 

Nor was the slender, swaying white partition — 
white at first — much protection during their first 
storm. When it overtook them tumultuous waves 
poured over the narrow deck and down the hatch- 
ways ; cargo and cabin alike were flooded ; all loose 

articles floated about in the harmony of rhythmic 

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motion, while miniature waves within the cabin dashed 
in unison with monster waves without. 

Doubtless the missionaries appreciated the comedy 
no less than the tragedy of the situation. But trag- 
edy must have waxed and comedy waned when, for 
thirty-six hours, they were calked down in their cabin 
of small dimensions, while noise and darkness, and 
cargo that tossed about, were their only companions ; 
while sailors stood with axes ready to cut away the 
masts, and death faced them every moment. 

From the midst of trunks filled with water and 
boxes of books hopelessly soaked, Dr. Gulick no 
doubt recalled with grim appreciation the anxiety of 
a secretary in Boston that discipline be secured to the 
youthful missionary. He had asked permission to go 
to Hawaii via Panama, the newly opened route involv- 
ing a journey of sixty-five days, and the answer from 
the older man to the younger was dignified and solemn : 
" My young brother," he said, " a foreign missionary 
needs the discipline of a voyage around Cape Horn." 
For discipline, therefore, missionary devotion to Micro- 
nesia was spending five months instead of two upon 
the water. And though reading and study filled the 
weeks, 1 time passed slowly. 

1 In this line a summary at its close shows what Dr. Gulick accom- 
plished during the voyage. Daily readings in Hebrew, Greek, and 
Hawaiian; some study of French; besides this, Stackhouse's History 
of the Bible, Latham on the Variety of the Races of Man, Mariner's- 

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At last, however, land was before them. They 
were nearing the beautiful Aina hanau^ the homeland 
left so long ago. In the distance, against skies more 
blue than skies have ever seemed since these last 
swept above him, Dr. Gulick sees again the hazy out- 
line of far-off mountains. For hours these float as 
airy tents above the clouds that hold them. Then 
their outline grows a trifle clearer. Land is seen below 
them; clouds are traced across them; and gradually 
from the gray there evolve the softest shades of 
green. As the tint grows deeper the long coastline 
is plainly seen; while dashing over sands white and 
bleached by myriad washings is the surf that rolls 
and foams and breaks, and with a sweeping caress is 
lost for a moment, then, slowly turning back, pre- 
pares to come again. Sight of it all came first, and 
then the sound, the musical ripple and swish and 
roar of waters in constant motion. Twelve years 
before a tone of utter sadness mingled with the music 
of their movement, but to-day who can measure all 
the gladness that it brings ! 

They passed the beautiful islands one by one and 
were anchored, at last, two miles from Honolulu. It 

ToDgo Islands, Life in Fiji, Morell's History of Modem Philosophy, 
Edwards on Revivals, on Original Sin, on the Affections, and on Faith, 
Chalmer's Memoir and Sermons. In addition, four sermons written 
and two outlined. And all this accomplished in spite of the fact that 
a sea voyage was for him ** a constant intellectual misery." 

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was March 24, 1852, Sabbath day ; and here they 
waited for Monday morning. 

Years of separation lay behind Dr. Gulick and his 
friends ; there were but two miles of quiet water 
between them now ; and yet, because of their sturdy 
loyalty to what they thought was meant by ' ' Remem- 
ber the Sabbath day to keep it holy," parents and 
brothers spent the day on shore, while Dr. Gulick and 
his wife still tarried on the Esther May. 

Dr. Gulick was twelve when he left. On his return 
he was twenty-three. Had time and distance banished 
him from the lives of his younger brothers? What 
else was possible ? And yet, if written thoughts ever 
take the place of spoken words ; if molded lives are 
ever any proof of personal influence, — we know that 
he did not return as a stranger to his home. Indeed, 
he was so good a friend that his written desires for 
himself had unconsciously set the standard for his 
brothers. They instinctively felt that thus in turn 
must they strive ; that his high goal must be their 
goal too. He had over and over again assumed their 
unity of purpose. 

" It cannot be," he had written, " that seven boys 
were sent here just to take up room and eat food and 
wear out clothes. I don't believe it. . . . Let us be an 
earnest family in mind and heart, and do much for the 
world of thought and religion. We can if we but 

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will. . . . Let not our family history be that of sight- 
less worms, boring the mud for bare existence. . . . 
An author is judged by his books, a mechanic by 
his machines, and a parent by his children. Are not 
at least John, Charles, Theodore, and Thomas to be 
missionaries ? " 

From boyhood to manhood he had thus come to 
them constantly as a mental and a moral inspiration. 
And it would be difficult, perhaps, to measure the 
effect of his written words on the lives of his six 
brothers. In truth, the voice which for years had 
called to them across the ocean was strengthened for 
them by the mystery of distance and America, acad- 
emy and university which lay behind it. Year by year 
it had formed part of their growing life. It had 
emphasized the daily petition of their father that his 
children might " have the glorious privilege of preach- 
ing the gospel to the heathen." 

With such preparation it is not strange that in time 
this privilege came to each in turn. Now, however, 
they were still young. Their Joseph had returned a 
great man, with a wife and a commission to preach 
that "glorious gospel" to yet more heathen islands. 
Orramel had seen him, and Charles, who was now in 
America; but to the younger boys and to his sister 
Halsey stepped off the Esther May to greet them at 
once a brother and a hero. 

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It is not quite possible to picture the meeting again 
after the long separation, nor to show all the change 
which Dr. Gulick found among his friends. 

This aged man who greets them is his father, gray 
twelve years ago, snowy white to-day ; and this, his 
mother, more bent and tired now, but with eyes as 
brown and bright and full of tears as when he left her. 
Such different tears to-day ! And this band of boys 
crowded close about him are his brothers, changed in 
limb and face and clothing, but unchanged of heart, 
welcoming in boyish fashion their brother — their hero 
— and the new sister that he brings. Last of all, 
like trailing arbutus among them, is the shy little 
sister with her Madonna face, the sister he had never 
seen before. 

And this was home again ! This its inner circle ! 
But other circles were no less changed. Friends of 
all ages had taken the same forward step. For the 
nation itself, for its Christianity and its civilization, 
the step seemed longest. 

Even now but thirty-two years had passed since the 
first missionary landed, and this is what we find : — 
a population of eighty-four thousand Hawaiians,^ a 
form of government changed from the unmeasured 
tyranny of the Tabu system to a limited monarchy, 
a house of hereditary nobles and representatives 

iThe deathB for 1850 were 4^0; the births 1,422. 

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chosen by the people, churches and schools scattered 
from Hawaii to Niihau, an annual government allow- 
ance to its common schools of $26,000, and in these 
schools fifteen thbusand pupils. In fact, schools and 
scholars of all ages were so multiplied that knowl- 
edge of reading and writing, geography, bookkeeping, 
history, and theology were claimed to outstrip all 
mechanical attainments. In addition to all else there 
was a church membership of twenty-one thousand, 
three ordained pastors, and a Christian community so 
large that a missionary remarks without even an ex- 
clamation point : " Some of our prisons are nearly 
destitute of inmates, and the district judges complain 
for want of something to do." 

Anticipating the mission to Micronesia, the Hawaiian 
Missionary Society had been formed in 1851 as aux- 
iliary to the American Board. Its contribution the 
first year was $6,140. 

Hawaiian history had now fairly entered upon a 
new era. Heretofore Christian life had grown by 
what it received ; hereafter it was to grow by what 
it gave. The importance of this step to Hawaiian 
church life cannot be overestimated. Ultimately de- 
sigoed for those in lower estate than they were, it 
was nevertheless taken primarily for the benefit of 
the Hawaiians themselves. They had reached that 
point in progressive Christianity where work for 

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others was needed to sustain and animate the home 

As of all new enterprises, so of this there had been 
question. Even now it was difficult, nay, in certain 
cases wellnigh impossible, to maintain self-supporting 
churches. Why then organize a new work which 
would require yet larger giving? Does not charity 
begin at home? On the whole, however, there had 
been union of conviction. The society had been 
organized. While interest slowly grew in a possible 
mission of their own, and while funds were coming in 
to help them begin it, the missionaries for that field 
had made the journey. They had arrived at last, and 
stood expectant and questioning on Hawaiian soil. 
Would these churches feel ready seriously to attempt 
all that was involved in this proposed foreign mission ? 

The answer to the question is found in the events 
of the succeeding four months. 

With the coming of the Esther May, what was 
growing interest before mounted rapidly to glowing 
enthusiasm. With The Missionary Herald and letters 
before us, it is easy to live over again those four 
months of history ; to watch the onward movement of 
its missionary wave, and to appreciate the increasing 
momentum with which it rose to rapid culmination in 
the sailing of the Caroline. 

Preliminary work had already been done, and when 

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the Esther May came, bringing with her a child of 
their own land — a young man clear-eyed and brave, 
— eager to be their missionary to Micronesia, play- 
mates of other days and Hawaiians everywhere recog- 
nized and welcomed him as their standard-bearer. 

Dr. Gulick was soon speaking in Hawaiian. Mr. 
Snow was no less earnest through an interpreter, while 
older missionaries and native Christians were all suc- 
cessfully working for the same object — the increase 
of mission interest among the people. The speaking 
and the praying were but the fanning of the flame. 
There was soon no question as to the will of the 

Of interest now there was no lack. Money they 
had generously given and prayers were daily offered. 
But what of that more serious proposition ? Were 
men and women ready to make the larger gift? Who 
would go as the first Hawaiian missionary to foreign 
lands ? This was the most serious question ever yet 
submitted to the Hawaiian churches. And missionary 
fathers of the Christian life of Hawaii must have held 
their breath till the answer came, for it would prove, 
as nothing else, how deep the roots of Christian life 
had reached. But the question was hardly asked 
before it was answered, first by one, then by another, 
until seven couples stood as candidates asking for 
liberty to go. 

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From among these seven two alone were to be 
chosen ; not by lot, as Matthias, but b}' careful 
deliberation. And while the people prayed about it, 
and while the candidates were willing to go or to stay, 
as should be judged best, the annual meeting of the 
mission was held in Honolulu. It continued in sessiou 
from May 6 to June 4. By formal action it passed 
the responsibility of the Micronesian Mission into 
the hands of the Hawaiian Missionary Society; and 
from among the seven waiting candidates two were 
finally chosen — Daniela Opunui, a school-teacher in 
the prime of life, a graduate of Lahainaluna Seminary, 
and Doreka, his wife ; and Berita Kaaikaula, a deacon, 
the owner of some property, the father of two 
children, and Deborah, his wife. Both children 
were left in Honolulu when the parents sailed for 

With the missionary society formed, the mission- 
aries chosen, and the field waiting for them nearly 
three thousand miles away, the pressing question was 
as to the wisest move first to be made. Of the field 
itself little was known. Sea captains ''would not 
give a straw," they said, " for the lives of men and 
women who should attempt to live in Micronesia." 
Still missionary purpose did not swerve. It was sug- 
gested that, for safety, the husbands go first to " spy 
out the land " and come again for their wives. But 

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separation seemed impossible when so much was 
involved, and all decided to go together^ 

A further question was as to the vessel they should 
take; and this too was promptly answered, for 
generous Hawaiian love, putting its arms still more 
closely about its foreign mission, bought for it the 
schooner Caroline. 

With each new decision larger interest was secured. 
Natives and foreigners were unitedly enlisted in prac- 
tical zeal. The children of the missionaries, many of 
them young men and women, united as the " Hawaiian 
Mission Children's Society" and pledged themselves 
to the support of Dr. Gulick and his wife. Lahaina- 
luna Seminary held itself equally responsible for the 
salary of its graduate Opunui, and the Second Church 
of Honolulu assumed the support of Kaaikaula, its 

The missionary meeting came to an end. The 
weeks were hurrying by. With so much of intensity 
in home life and in public life too, Dr. Gulick's 
journal was not often written. Yet in the midst of it, 
on the tenth of June, there is a significant bu'thday 
note: — 

''Twenty-four years old to-day, and I am launched 
on the wide, wild sea of life." 

The closing weeks were crowded with meetings and 
all were full of interest. But most impressive, per- 

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haps, was that which included the public consecration 
of Messrs. Opunui and Kaaikaula with their wives to 
mission service. All were members of the Second 
Hawaiian Church of Honolulu. 

It was the last Sabbath in June, and a thousand 
communicants were present that day. After cele- 
brating the Lord's Supper together the Hawaiians 
about to leave spoke to their fellow Christians who 
were to stay and pray for them. And while they 
still stood, their wives standing with them, they 
received both charge and instruction from their pas- 
tor. ^ Then, to prove his people no less than to 
strengthen those who left them, Mr. Smith asked all 
to rise who were resolved to follow their missionaries 
'' with prayer and contributions year after year, even 
until death" should come to them. There was no 
hesitation, for dusky Hawaiians are as easily moved 
by sacrifice and devotion as any other people. With 
one accord they rose to their feet, and standing for 
a moment they pledged themselves to changeless love 
for Micronesia and for the workers there. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sturges had now arrived from the 
United States. They too were going to Micronesia. 

On the sixth of July a council was called to 
organize the *' Mission Church of Micronesia," the 
child of that other "Mission Church" organized 

1 Rev. LoweU Smith. 

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thirty-three years before in Park Street Church, Boston 
— the ''Mission Church of the Hawaiian Islands." 
Of this newest church there were but ten members, 
five men and five women. A small force surely, yet 
a lever that should lift all Micronesia ! 

Friends now sent gifts of every sort : food for the 
voyage, comforts for the new life, letters to cheer 
them. In truth, the zeal for giving laid hold upon all, 
high and low, rich and poor, saint and sinner too, so 
it seems, for they say: "It is the wish of all, the 
wicked as well as the good, that the Lord may open 
wide the door before you." 

Even royalty was stirred. With what touching 
readiness do those who have suffered try to help 
those who are still in pain ! Anxious to do his part, 
Kamehameha III wrote a letter in Hawaiian to " all 
chiefs of the islands of this great ocean to the west- 
ward." To them he sent his " greetings " and his 
wish for them of "peace and happiness now and 
forever." And then he adds : — 

"Here is my friendly message to you: There are 
about to sail for your islands some teachers of the 
Most High God Jehovah, to make known unto you 
his word for your eternal salvation. A part of them 
are white men from the United States of America 
and a part of them belong to my islands. 

"I therefore take the libertv to commend these 

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good teachers to your care and friendship, to exhort 
yon to listen to their instructions and to seek their 
acquaintance. I have seen the value of such teachers. 
. . . Many of my people regard the Word of God, 
Jehovah, and pray to him ; and he has greatly blessed 
us. I advise you to throw away your idols, take 
the Lord Jehovah for your God, worship and love 
him, and he will bless and save you. May he make 
these new teachers a great blessing to you and your 
people and withhold from you no good thing ! 


And now the Caroline is to sail. It is four o'clock 
in the afternoon, July 15, 1852 — a quiet, summer 
afternoon under a tropic sky. From the last prayer 
meeting in Honolulu missionaries and friends have 
come to the wharf. Hundreds are already there ; 
Hawaiians in bright-colored, simple gowns, decked, 
as always, with wreaths of beautiful flowers, and 
missionaries in their sober costume; children are 
curious and excited and strangers are filled with 
astonishment. Natives and foreigners, old and young, 
all alike have eager faces. Some are tearful, others 
joyful. Some see only the heroism before them, others 
see only its pathos; but all realize that a new era 
has dawned for Hawaii. 

Eaaikaula and Deborah are saying good-by to their 

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children. Dr* Gulick is once more saying '* Good-by" 
— God be with you — to his mother. His wife is 
near him, his brothers, his sister, and his father ; but 
his mother's heart aches most ! 

All who go are gathered upon the deck of the 
Caroline. The last moments have come ; a hush has 
fallen ; bowed heads are uncovered ; heaven seems 
very near, and the cloud of witnesses close about 
them. Prayers are offered in English and Hawaiian. 
Then, as a fervent Amen to the praying, the giving, 
and the hoping, hundreds of voices join in singing : — 

" Waft, waft, ye winds, his story, 
And you, ye waters, roll, 
Till like a sea of glory 
It spreads from pole to pole." 

After this the Caroline moved away. And while 
from deck and wharf friends still watched each other 
through the gloaming, darkness came between them 
and their watching was ended ; yet they felt that 
God could still be reached. And rising to heaven 
from Hawaiian homes that night ten thousand prayers 
brushed the sails of the Caroline and wafted her on 
her way. 

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rpWENTY-FOUR people were on the Caroline: 
-^ three foreign aud two Hawaiian missionaries 
with their wives, Mr. Clark and Mr. Kekela, delegates 
from Hawaii to return again, and Mr. John Gulick, 
who accompanied his brother for the voyage. The 
rest were captain, crew, steward, and cook ; thirteen 
passengers and a crew of eleven on a schooner of 
one hundred tons pressing toward Micronesia three 
thousand miles away! 

If a photograph would do it, how easy to emphasize 
the smallness of the Caroline by placing beside it the 
ocean steamer that crosses the Atlantic to-day ! Ten 
thousand tons tower broad and high against one 
hundred, and the difference in size is more than 
equaled by all the comfort that the smaller vessel 
lacked. Even to a zealous secretary in Boston the 
Esther May had seemed small enough and uncom- 
fortable enough for needed missionary discipline ; but 
the Esther May represented luxury itself as compared 
to the limited quarters of the Caroline. Its passen- 
gers were so crowded now that they had no staterooms ,* 


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so cramped that the table on which they dined was 
placed outside the cabin; while the service of the 
schooner was so ineflScient that seasick missionary 
wives supervised the kitchen, washed and baked, and 
tried to be cheerful. 

Twenty days of rain and sunshine were marked 
by irregular progress and adjustment to the con- 
stant nearness of each other. Then, on the fifth of 
August, land appeared, the most northern of the 
Gilbert Islands, a low shadow on the horizon ; 
darker, more stable than a cloud, and far more real 
than cloudland to eager eyes that saw for the first time 
a Micronesian coral reef. 

A line of trees and a beach of gleaming sand — 
that was all. No spot on that low-lying island was 
so high as the deck on which they stood, and they 
wondered whether men's thoughts could ever soar 
from so low an earthly spot to heaven that reached 
so high above them. Yet prayers that day rose 
straight and swift from the Caroline, and those who 
prayed thought an answer came as swiftly down. 
They prayed for an interpreter and they prayed for a 
welcome. Both came promptly to them. The natives 
proved friendly, amused and interested rather than 
hostile; the interpreter was an Englishman, who 
under his flying British ensign was a trader there in 
cocoanut oil. 

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Commerce had, indeed, years before sent its mes- 
sengers to Micronesia, j^et in spite of commerce with 
Christian lands not a ray of Christianity or of civili- 
zation had yet touched Butaritari. A thousand pai'- 
dons of the shirts and the pipes! Yes; civiliza- 
tion had sometimes gasped in a flannel shirt under 
the burning sky, and it had laid its fiery hand on 
heathenism already in condition sad enough. Civi- 
lization had taught the native the art of liquor- 
making. It had refined the art of murder by 
supplying guns to hands that really wanted to kill. 
It had proved to the simple that the greater wisdom 
of the white man who came among them was 
shown in loving himself much more than he loved 
his neighbor. 

The lesson had been learned, and now other white 
meo had come ; the same in kind, of course, for all 
arrive in ships, all have pale faces, all speak a bar- 
barous tongue. But these other beings who came 
with them were surprising. "Women," the trader 
called them, "foreign women," and natives were 
astonished. How droll, how unnatural, how unfash- 
ionable they were! How disfigured, poor things! 
The heathen women were convulsed, nor did they 
conceal their amusement more than we do ours from 
monkeys and infants that please us. They followed 
them in companies ; they gave them cocoanuts to eat 

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and cocoaDut milk to drink ; they shook hands as an 
added joke, and had a merry time. 

All were not, however*, thus affected, only the 
frivolous, perhaps, for many were coolly indifferent, 
masters of staid self-possession. Yet all these inhab- 
itants of Butaritari were interesting ; large men, often 
six feet tall, and small women, brown skin for all and 
black eyes, long black hair, tattooing that theoreti- 
cally supplied all deficiencies in costume, and cocoanut 
oil from head to foot — a shining mantle. 

The garment worn was a pandanus leaf skirt about 
the waist. As a foreign touch a shirt was sometimes 
added, a hat also in the case of royalty. This the 
missionaries discovered when an interview was granted 
with the king. Mr. Randall, the trader, went with 
them. The palace was a low-spreading, straw- 
thatched roof, open on all sides, resting on posts four 
feet high, and covering ground enough to seat five 
hundred people — to seat them on its natural floor of 
sand and bits of jagged coral. 

The throne was in the center of this building and 
the king upon it. All was most harmonious, for the 
throne was a simple platform, six feet square, raised 
a foot from the ground, and the king a lad of four- 
teen, whose royal attire, itemized by Mrs. GuUck, 
was a " soiled calico shirt, coarse pantaloons, and a 
straw hat, which he kept on through our visit." 

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Five hundred chiefs and people were assembled. 
For the first time in Micronesia the letter from Eame- 
hameha was read and interpreted. The missionary 
hymn was also sung, and, whatever it meant to 
heathen who listened, it was full of significance to 
missionaries who had come so far and hoped so much. 
Mrs. Gulick speaks for them all : — 

"Our feelings none can imagine but those who 
have realized a similar scene. Perfect silence pre- 
vailed, and our hearts rose in joyful hope at least. 
' Salvation ! O salvation ! ' " 

Still, neither king nor chiefs committed themselves 
to a permanent welcome of the missionary. The hope 
of a better religion meant little to them. Their own, 
a vague sense of a Supreme Being, and a mild type 
of ancestral worship, satisfied 'them. '' Spirit-stones " 
stood in many places, and to these monthly offerings 
were made. A god offended was placated by a feast. 
Superstition was their master, though they boasted 
neither idol, priest, nor temple. 

Of this new thing and this new people they were 

suspicious. They feared interference with their cus- 

' toms, especially with their plan for plurality of wives. 

In any case the missionaries would visit other islands 

before deciding where to locate. 

And from the midst of human beings who swam like 
fish about her the Caroline sailed away from the quiet 
lagoon, out again into the Pacific. 

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Butaritari was but one of sixteen coral islands that 
formed the Kings mill or Gilbert Archipelago, a typical 
coral group, more compact than any other in Micro- 
nesia ; a group of wreaths that rested lightly on the 
ocean, or better, a group of buried islands made 
immortal by the wreaths that grace their resting place. 
At least this they are to those who hold that each once 
surrounded an island now buried, and that, while the 
central island sank, the tireless coral insect kept pace 
with it in the upbuilding of a wall about it, until, 
passing through all the stages from fringing to encir- 
cling reef, it stands at last complete, an island that 
man may live upon, an atoll, the lonely representative 
of the island it formerly guarded. 

These atolls are indeed picturesque. A narrow strip 
of land, half a mile wide, enclosing quiet water ; white 
sands that border on the lagoon within, and sand as 
white that faces all the Pacific outside. Between the 
two are trees that form the wreath, cocoanuts always 
facing the lagoon, bending slightly toward it as if in 
greeting, and pandanus on the ocean side. One grows 
best when shielded, the other when resisting the 

Under these cocoanut trees that tower thirty, forty, 
fifty feet above the coral, and under these spreading 
pandanus trees, forty thousand people lived upon the 
Gilbert Islands. From birth to death their only 

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food was fish and cocoanut and pandanus ; this was 
literally all they had to eat. Their drink was water, 
slightly brackish, and fermented cocoanut sap that 
intoxicated them. 

Still further impoverishing them were storms that 
sometimes destroyed thek fruit trees. 

Of necessity political economists on the Gilbert 
Islands were Malthusian in their doctrines. Indeed, 
the relation of population to food supply was here an 
immediate and practical question. They solved it by 
systematic infanticide. No mother was allowed more 
than two or three living children. And war and pesti- 
lence were welcomed as the hope of the race. 

Physically contrasted to low coral reefs and their 
depressing limitations was Eusaie, of the Caroline 
group. This was approached on the twenty-first of 
August. Not an atoll this time, but an island that as 
bravely held its head among the clouds as any hopeful 
visionary. From the deck of the Caroline they saw 
it twenty miles away. And, drawing nearer, every 
mile more clearly proved it a vision rising out of fairy- 
land, nay, fairyland itself. 

They anchored in what seemed a landlocked harbor. 
High hills wrapped in green from base to summit were 
its ancient sentinels ; and spread out beneath waters 
clear as crystal were gardens and forests of shaded sea- 
weed and coral. Under these forests was the beautiful 

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sand, while among them and over them were the 
inhabitants of the place. Here were shells of every 
hue and shape that slowly moved about. Here, too, 
were crabs that scuttled around in funny sidewise 
fashion ; starfish as blue as the skies above them, and 
merry little fish that played in groups and watched 
the canoe that glided above them, and darted away in 
wildest glee among the coral branches. Here and 
there a youthful shark lazily cut the air with its dorsal 
fiu ; and lying on the sandy bed a giant sting ray with 
hideous face and unwinking eye gazed silently upward 
at the sun. 

As if all this were not beauty enough for voyagers 
in a Kusaiean canoe, for half a mile there was the 
added witchery of moving under the shadow of wide- 
reaching mangrove trees, trees that tropic luxury in 
growing seemed to have crowded from the land out 
into the mouths of the streams and on to the rich basal- 
tic mud of the coral flats. Almost the only tree that 
grows in salt water, here it thrived luxuriantly ; at 
high tide a noble forest walking out to sea; at low 
tide a discouraged forest patiently wading back on 
stilts through the mud. For the strong, long, and 
twisted roots were dismally exposed when high tide 
left them. 

Birds singing in branches above them ; fish sporting 
in water below them ; the flecking of sunshine and 

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shadow around them ; surely nature was very kind and 
beautiful on Kusaie. No wonder Dr. Guliek felt it, 
and, carried away by the enchantment, copied into his 
journal : — 

There 's beauty in the deep ; 

The wave is bluer than the sky ; 

And though the light shines bright on high, 
More softly do the sea gems glow 
That sparkle in the depths below. 

The rainbow tints are only made 
When on the waters they are laid, 

And sun and moon most sweetly shine 

Upon the ocean's level brine. 
There 's beauty in the deep. 

Two islands form the empire of Kusaie. In 1852 
the population of the whole was fifteen hundred. 
Their king was known as good King George, and his 
subjects suggested the Chinese in personal appearance. 
They were a delicate, slender people of light copper 
color and small features. Their black eyes were 
sunken and slightly oblique in their setting, while 
their hair was long and fine and black, and neatly tied 
upon itself at the side or back of the head. They 
wore no garment for warmth in Micronesia, simply a 
braided mat about the waist. When the Kusaiean dude 
sighed for style a flannel shirt was added. For style, 
too, many pretty ears were boreil ; and by constant 

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stretching these lobes were so drawn out like rubber 
that in time they were useful no less than ornamental. 
In these extended ears flowers were carried instead 
of earrings. In them, too, did the aspirant after 
imported fashions sometimes carry his shirt when he 
crossed a stream or swam to meet a whaler. Here, 
too, the pipe was often stored away — pipe in one ear, 
shirt in the other ; all that civilization had brought 
to them packed thus conveniently in their Micronesian 

A pleasant-mannered people this was who came to 
meet the Caroline. Many of them talked broken 
English, as learned from whalers. The combination 
of heathen costume with English words and manners 
was sometimes unique ; notably so when the king's 
son took tea with the missionaries. An evident 
heathen, with only his shirt as a visible mark of civi- 
lization, yet in calm self-possession he sat in a chair 
drawn up to a table neatly spread, and with knife, 
fork, and spoon ate the food of Western lands. With 
a napkin he touched his lips. And in quiet dignity he 
talked the language of the antipodes and answered 
questions which these people from the antipodes 
asked him. 

''What do you think of missionaries?" they 

There was no hesitation in the answer, shrewdly 

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noncommittal: ^' Bad captains tell me missionaries 
bad ; good captains tell me missionaries good." 

When asked whether or not he would like to go 
to America, he sat silent for a moment, then said 
abruptly : ' ' What use me go America ? Me got no 

The golden goddess of America so large that even 
heathen Micronesia saw it ! 

By special appointment missionaries from America 
and Hawaii soon called on good King George of 
Kusaie. Royalty met them graciously. It proved a 
higher type than was found on Butaritari. Indeed, 
royalty on Kusaie was the highest type in Micronesia. 
The palace itself proved this, and the king was its 
explanation. With Eastern courtesy he met his vis- 
itors at the doorway ; and with the cordial grace of 
sixty years and the self-possession which comes from 
assured superiority he welcomed them each with a 
smile, a handshake, and a sincere " Good -morning." 

Then he led them into his palace. This was a large 
straw-thatched building with posts and reeds firmly 
tied together for walls. A square fireplace was in the 
center; a bed raised a foot from the ground in one 
corner; reed matting on the floor; and over all a 
pervading air of neatness and order. In addition 
visitors soon realized that there was much here in the 
line of imported luxury, for the seats they occupied 

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were foreign chests, while conspicuously placed about 
the room — the palace — were guns, saws, a lantern, 
a few water-colored prints, and a lamp. *' Exhibit- 
ing," as Dr. Gulick says, *' King George's wealth as 
Solomon might have exhibited his peacocks and 
monkeys from Tarshish." 

Seated on the floor, affectionately playing with 
her grandchild, was the queen. Diminutive, old, and 
wrinkled, she was nevertheless most youthfully clad 
in a short-sleeved, low-necked, calico gown that came 
to her knees. 

To the king and queen presents were given : a 
Hawaiian Bible and hymn book, Cheever's Island 
World with its illustrations, two red flannel shirts, a 
red blanket, red petticoat, turkey-red calico as a gown 
for the queen, and scissors to be gracefully suspended 
from her royal neck by the red ribbon which accom- 
panied them. 

The interview was pleasant. Its result : permission 
that a missionary and his wife should live on Kusaie ; 
only one white couple at first ; and the explanation 
for this restriction was in the terse remark of the 
king : ^^ Like one white man come ; not many. If 
many come, rum come, fight come." 

His sentiments on the temperance question were 
indeed manifest everywhere. Total prohibition was 
the law of the land; a law so strenuously enforced 

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that he allowed no cocoanut tree to be tapped on 
Kusaie. To tap the tree secured a pleasant drink. 
Once fermented, this would intoxicate. People intox- 
icated were noisy and disagreeable ; therefore the 
prohibition. Or, in the more forceful words of King 
George himself : " Plenty white men speak me very 
good; tap cocoanut tree get toddy. Me say no, no 
good. Plenty men get drunk on shore ; too much 
row ; me like all quiet ; no tap cocoanut tree on 

And that was the end of it. Kusaieans did not get 
drunk. An autocrat in heathen Micronesia was able 
to enforce temperance legislation. Polygamy was 
also prohibited ; and stealing met its swift retribu- 
tion. A thief was whipped while the missionaries 
were there — evidently the usual treatment, for speak- 
ing in idiomatic English, the king, turning to them, 
said : '' That is the way we treat men here who 

In truth, good King George was a remarkable man. 
Chosen by acclamation of the people to succeed a 
tyrant he had helped depose, he gave up his prefer- 
ence for fishing and ruled over the Kusaieans as a wise 
and righteous father. And they, in turn, to show 
their love and respect for him, spoke in lowered tones 
when he was near ; they even whispered, silenced the 
dogs, and approached him on their hands and knees. 

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Done voluntarily at first, this had now become so 
much the custom of the land that even his son was 
under its requirement. 

"Witness the inherent nobility of this man. Forget- 
ting that he is only a semi-clad heathen, and that these 
men before him are representatives of a mighty civi- 
lization and of a religion which they have come to 
teach him ; remembering only that he is a man, and 
that they too are but men who seem sincere and kind 
and helpful, when they asked him what his message 
was to the king of Hawaii, he quietly answered in flaw- 
less English : " Tell him that I will be a father to Mr. 
and Mrs. Snow." 

And this till the end he always was. 

Thus does it happen that, in the Central Pacific, 
on an island remote since the beginning from civiliza- 
tion and Christianity ; on an island touched only by 
the blight which whalers often carry with them from 
Christian lands, good King George towers in Micro- 
nesian history as Abraham among the nations. For 
accepting truth all that such a man needed was to hear 
it. And this was soon possible. He gave land for a 
mission home and promised to help in its building 
when Mr. and Mrs. Snow should return. And when, 
as they left Kusaie, he shook hands again and said 
" Good-by," it was as if a patriarch had blessed 

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No need to speak of encouragement and thanksgiv- 
ing and light hearts that sailed still farther westward 
in the Caroline. Verily, for nine bright days hope 
moved among the stars, for who could tell but larger 
welcome yet would meet them on Ponape ? 

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AS the Caroline drew near to Ponape, there first 
-^I~k- appeared the wide-encircling barrier reef, an 
outline whitened for eighty miles by breakers that 
dashed against it, and studded already with islets 
formed upon it ; a coral reef that met, on one side, the 
fury of every storm that swept the Pacific, and on the 
other faced eternal peace. 

"Within the reef, an emerald gem in a white coral 
setting, was Ponape itself, the largest of fort\'-eight 
islands that formed the Caroline group, and the one 
by which all Micronesia had been judged. Pictured 
simply, Ponape is an island sixty miles in circumfer- 
ence, with an average height of twenty-five hundred 
feet. At that time it had ten thousand inhabitants. 
Yet, as the Caroline approached, not a house was seen 
through draping vines and shining moss and splendid 
trees that mantled it from summit to seashore. 

Missionaries and crew were alike excited ; and 
watching the scene with them, we too " advance 
toward the tree-girt shore. The breeze seems by a 
rebound from the hills to subside with the sea. We 


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are evidently approaching one of nature's sanctu- 
aries. We glide more and more gently. The sailor 
at his post eyes the paradise with the knowing look of 
one who has seen the world and will be surprised at 
nothing, while his whole soul is evidently stirred as 
he responds to the vigorously uttered command from 
the quarter-deck by a more than prompt 'Ay, ay 
sir,' and a dashing obedience that spins the vessel 
from side to side." 

Soon, from the islets of the reef, from sandy beach 
and quiet lagoon, graceful canoes glide out to meet 
the Caroline ; some speed to the rhythmic movement 
of paddles; some have white triangular sails that 
gleam like silver in the sunlight — thirty canoes in all. 
And to the Caroline, across the hush of expectation, 
there rolls " a swelling wave of subdued chattering." 
Does it signify war or peace? In each canoe five 
natives ; twelve white faces among them ; a company 
that proves homes somewhere and humanity to fill 
them. There is tense life in the graceful form that 
stands erect, fearless and proud, in the quivering prow 
of his slight canoe. Surely a fine type of island man- 
hood this : eyes keen and black that pierce thie 
waters ahead; skin copper-colored, neatly tattooed, 
polished with cocoanut oil till it shines like a mirror ; 
hair short, black, and glossy, adorned with a head- 
dress of beads ; and for costume a skirt of young 

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cocoanut leaves, a necklace of shells and beads, and 
eardrops gorgeous with red flannel and beads. 

Here too is island grace, for the belle herself has 
come to meet the foreigner. Hands and feet are 
saffron - stained for beauty. Turkey -red cloth is 
wrapped about her limbs, and a bright handkerchief 
partially covera chest and shoulders. With a gigantic 
taro leaf she shields herself from tropic sunshine, and 
in easy nonchalance she watches the people about her. 

Pilots and chiefs and shining natives soon crowded 
the decks of the Caroline ; and it would be difficult to 
picture the excitement of the days that followed. 
Instead of war it was reiterated welcome. This, not 
because on Ponape they hungered for righteousness, 
but because they certainly did hunger for the trade 
which white men had always brought them ; for riches 
in guns, powder, and tobacco which came from that 
mysterious land which stretched out beyond the hori- 
zon somewhere. 

But most surprising was the welcome that the mis- 
sionaries received from " a tail, slim, bronzed man," 
who came as a pilot to meet them. With the ease of 
a Frenchman he touched the tortoise-shell front to his 
close-fitting cap, and with earnest sincerity told them 
how he had prayed for missionaries, and how he 
thanked God that at last they had come ! 

Twenty years of sinning on Ponape, followed by 

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illness and fear and repentance and prayer, explained 
that welcome from Mr. Corgat. Prayers in Micro- 
nesia drawing them ; prayers in America and Hawaii 
sending them, and Mr. Corgat waiting for them there 
on Ponape with his childlike faith and his simple 
welcome ! 

"As the tide was low," writes Dr. Gulick, "we 
immediately commenced that course of wading and 
dragging and sweltering so long our privilege on this 
heathen island ; only that, fortunately, our first expe- 
riences were enlivened by the romance of novelty, and 
were relieved from real labor by efficient natives. We 
had not yet acquired that carelessness regarding the 
immersion of shoes in salt water which soon grew upon 
us, and were content to be handled like babes, to be 
carried on in advance of the canoes, and to be left 
perched on toppling stones while the natives returned 
to drag the canoes toward us." All this was neces- 
sary because "the waters enclosed within the barrier 
reef were our only roads," as Dr. Gulick says, " and 
our passages, even for short distances, are very much 
regulated by the tides, the observance of which is, 
therefore, more important to us than that of our 

Ponape was reached on the sixth of September. 
On the 29th the Caroline sailed away. Dr. and M^s. 
Gulick, Mr. and Mrs. Sturges, and Mr. and Mrs. Kaai- 

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kaula were left there, while Mr. and Mrs. Snow with 
Mr. and Mrs. Opunui were taken back to Kusaie. 
The Caroline then moved out again into the world, 
and Christian history in Micronesia opened its first 
chapter. Perhaps it was as well that its heroes, 
ready for self-denial, could not know what the measure 
of it was to be. 

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THE story of those years in Micronesia is very 
simply told by those who lived it. It showed 
a life of mingled threads ; study of the language, 
preaching and teaching, medical work, physical dis- 
comfort, mental hunger, the annual mail, disappoint- 
ment, heartache, encouragement, and hope. These 
were the various threads that formed the warp and 
woof of daily living. But first of all came acquaint- 
ance with the people. 

" Let the philanthropist and friend of missions but 
vividly realize the heathen's infancy," writes Dr. 
Gulick, '' and his wonder will cease that generations 
must lapse before a race can be civilized. 

"As in the hotbeds of American democracy, that 
latest development of modern civilization, there are 
no children, only infants and men, so on Ponape. 
The Ponapean passes from infantile dirt to the niceties 
of a dandy. His head is as carefully oiled as that of 
anyone else. He has as much to say as anyone. 
He takes as important part in providing for the family 
as any other individual. Who may then obstruct his 


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personal liberty ? Not but that the father commands 
and the youth obeys, but the obedience is as optional 
with the youth as the command with the father. 

*' No Solomon has taught, on Ponape, the blessings 
of the rod, and woe to the parent who should insanely 
attempt its application ! Indeed, no Ponapean has 
the remotest conception of punishment from other 
impulse than that of anger. No word in the language 
conveys the idea of deliberate, just retribution for 

Further, of their moral character he says : — 

'* How difficult to sustain hope in one's heart when 
planning for the elevation of a people whose contact 
with the representatives of civilization serves, with 
but few exceptions, to render their diseases more 
deadly, their vices more vicious ! " 

When foreign missionaries reached Ponape, eighty 
foreigners were leading godless lives there, and Dr. 
Gulick exclaimed : — 

" How numerously does Satan commission his non- 
salaried missionaries ! " 

Still the new life had now begun among the Pona- 
peans and the record of it. Over and over again we 
read the words " Rono Kiti" and '' Matalanim " until 
we learn to know that these are the two most impor- 
tant of the five tribes of Ponape ; that each gives its 
. name to a harbor ; that they are separated from each 

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other by twenty-five miles of water — this their only 
line of commnnication ; that they are riral tribes 
frequently at war, and that Mr. and Mrs. Storges 
with Mr. and Mrs. Kaaikaula live at Bono Kiti, while 
Dr. and Mrs. Galiek are alone at Matalanim. 

Thns separated, even missionaries on the same island 
could not often see each other. Indeed, Mrs. Gnliek 
and Mrs. Starges seldom met more than once or twice 
a year. Of necessity also, missionary work, though 
similar in character, was to a large extent carried on 
separately in the Matalanim and Rono Kit! tribes. 

The year 1853 found their Micronesian life fairly 
begun. Dr. Gulick had built for himself a home on 
beautiful Shalong Point on the shores of Matalanim 
harbor. A *'woe-begone Englishman" helped him 
build it. Four weeks from the day tiie foundations 
were laid the young couple entered their own first 
home and began housekeeping in Micronesia. 

Curiosity speculates as to what sort of house that 
was at Shalong, erected in four weeks and costing one 
hundred and seventy dollars. It is easy to answer 
the query, for we are told somewhat about it : — 

" The floor of our house consisted of thick poles 
hewn on the upper surface ; the sides and partitions 
were of reed wickerwork through which tropical 
breezes sometimes blew quite too freely ; the roof and 
broad veranda were thatched with sago leaves." This 

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was the happy home of scorpions, lizards, and centi- 
pedes, "a roofing very satisfactory, however," as 
Dr. Gulick used to say, " so long as the leaves lay 
down the right way. But when the wind blew them 
up, the water poured the wrong way ; and many times 
did I have to mount the roof in the rain to keep dry ! " 

This one-story home measured twenty feet by thirty. 
A hall through its center was reception and dining 
room combined, and schoolroom too for a season. 
On either side the hall were the four rooms — library, 
bedroom, spare room, and pantry. The kitchen stood 
apart from the house, a room by itself. 

In the library, arranged on homemade, unpainted 
shelves, were treasures more precious than gold to 
Dr. Gulick — his books ; four hundred volumes safely 
lodged at last in his own home. From the window of 
this library, eyes soon learned to turn instinctively 
beyond the green edging of the Pacific, beyond the 
whitened barrier reef, across old ocean that stretched 
away illimitably, eyes that watched eagerly through 
weeks and through months for some message from the 
world that was beyond it all. 

In this work of building which they had undertaken, 
Dr. Gulick and Mr. Sturges were from the outset met 
by the question as to how far they were justified in 
using tobacco as a medium of exchange with the 
people. With it all the wealth of Ponape might be 

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purchased, food and labor, friends even and pupils. 
Without it there was often poverty and actual suffering. 

Both in the Hawaiian Islands and in the American 
Board rooms in Boston there was strenuous opposition 
to its use in any possible form. To use it as a medium 
of exchange was to countenance its use as a narcotic : 
thus to use it was a sin ; all, therefore, who had any 
dealings with it were sinners ; so they seemed to reason. 

But when, in dire extremity, neither Mr. Sturges 
nor Dr. Gulick could secure help in building their 
homes without it they yielded to the inevitable, bought 
some from a whaler and used it " with consciences 
void of offense," as Dr. Gulick wrote, " for the path- 
way seemed and still seems very clear." 

"You are aware," he further says, "that the use, 
the morality and the religion of the use, of tobacco is 
one that has much exercised the Hawaiian Islands 
Mission, and that the missionaries there are, in the 
main, on the extreme of orthodoxy. Whether in 
Micronesia we shall, whether we can, maintain the 
same rigidity is now the question." 

Then with a smile through the writing, yet with 
serious intent. Dr. Gulick tells the oflScers of the 
American Board that " should Micronesia take the 
extreme position and should natives there learn the 
English language, the publications of the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions must 

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pass through inquisitorial censorship before they can 
be placed in the hands of our disciples ; and that too," 
he adds, " from their lurking heresy on this doctrine." 
To illustrate he refers them to the April number of The 
Dayspring for 1852 ; and with a twinkle in eyes that 
follow his pen he tells them that it " represents a 
missionary who is most commendatorily noticed as one 
who has borne hardship for Christ," the Rev. Hugo 
Hahn, who, " comfortably mounted on an ox, musket 
in hand, has a countenance that wears the semblance 
of holy calmness and true Germanic happiness. But 
whether this comes from an ignorant or indurated con- 
science, it is, alas, too painfully palpable that he is 
already a guilt-condemned tobacco smoker ! ! And I 
am at this moment obliged to hide it away lest it meet 
the eyes of our bright-sighted Litobo, and lest she 
should ask, ' Is that a missionary ? ' " 

Then very seriously he begs not to be misunderstood 
and assures the Board that he will ever ' ' oppose the 
extravagant and general use of tobacco on physio- 
logical and economic premises, but not, at present at 
least, on moral and religious grounds further than as 
physiology and economics touch on morality." 

However, in deference to conservative home opinion, 
tobacco was never used on Ponape except in cases of 
extreme emergency — even then sparingly. Mission- 
aries often endured the suffering of physical privation 


by Google 


rather than bring offense to brethren in home lands who 
could not or would not understand the situation on 
Ponape. Of necessity, however, tobacco had helped 
build homes for the missionaries. 

"With prompt civility, neighbors filled with curiosity 
came from far and near to call upon the strangers. 
Interesting types the callers were sometimes. Once it 
was a priest who " strutted up to our door dressed in 
a flaming red flannel shirt and a cocoanut leaf skirt, 
with an umbrella over his head " — attire as religiously 
inspiring, perhaps, in Micronesia as enlarged borders 
and widened phylacteries in Jerusalem. At another 
time there came what Dr. Gulick describes as "an old 
mummy of a priest with a leathern-skinned face, who 
could pull the corners of his mouth almost to his eyes 
and who could wink so forcibly as to almost obliterate 
the space between the hairs of his head and his eye- 

Even royalty visited them sometimes, for there were 
two marvels now at Shalong that charmed alike the 
earthly and the heavenly minded. "Who, indeed, could 
resist the small melodeon that stood in the hallway and 
the fair-haired woman who played upon it ? Yet there 
was comedy of sensation one day when the Matalanim 
king himself brought a royal guest to hear the music. 

To relieve his tired wife, Dr. Gulick made no apol- 
ogy but courageously took her place at the melodeon, 

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"the suspicion not crossing my mind," as he says, 
"but that my performance would be as highly appre- 
ciated as my wife's, albeit I have no knowledge of 
either the science or the practice of music. I sat 
down to the instrument, put my feet in proper posi- 
tion on the pedals, placed my fingers on the keys and 
moved them up and down on the counter, swaying my 
body the while as musicians do, and producing sounds 
such as I supposed- were without doubt softening the 
savage heart as music is said always to do. Imagine 
then my surprise on hearing my greasy king apologiz- 
ing to the still more untutored stranger chief, saying, 
' The foreign man knows nothing about it ; it is the 

That was the end of Dr. Gulick's musical recitals. 
Indeed, by natural division of labor Mrs. Gulick was 
organist, housekeeper, and school-teacher, while Dr. 
Gulick was physician, carpenter, student, and preacher. 

Naturally enough, each department was full of 
interest and also of trial. School work meant native 
.curiosity at first, a fear of foreign witchery in learn- 
ing to read, heroism in those who first dared attempt 
it, and a frightened king who turned almost pale when 
a small boy wrote his name upon a slate, and later 
read it to him. 

Then, however, came the era of growing courage that 
ended in enthusiasm. Yet fear and enthusiasm were 

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alike most natural; for Micronesian eyes had never 
yet seen Micronesian words in writing. The wildest 
Ponapean imagination had never dreamed it. As a 
result, teachers and pupils too faced the diflSculties of 
an unwritten language and the lack of a printing press. 
Missionaries, however, rapidly caught simple words 
and phrases. These were written down. Gradually a 
primer grew, one leaf at a time. Of this primer hand- 
written copies were made. These were lent to aspiring 
students, and these students taught each other. 

Ambition spread her wings. One boy had read to 
the bottom of the page ; another had turned the leaf. 
Men and women joined the number. No outward 
sign yet proved the budding erudition. Cocoanut oil, 
tattooing, brown skins were all as before ; but earnestly 
gathered in hall and veranda were men, women, and 
children, bending over the whole Micronesian litera- 
ture, a hand-written primer, and learning to read it. 
It must have been a curious sight. 

They came for instruction at any time from sunrise 
to sunset. And why not? What was time on Ponape? 
No sewing to be done ; no professional duties ; no 
farming ; seldom any cooking ; nothing but existence 
and acceptance of the goods that sunshine and kind 
fortune brought them. So now, at Shalong they were 

In due time there came the examination and the 

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exhibition. Then, to emphasize the outward effect 
that inward learning gives, Mrs. Gulick utilized the 
only material she had and the school shone forth 
resplendent, six girls in calico dresses that were 'blue, 
and four boys in calico sacks that were green. The 
aesthetic sense of Ponape was touched, and immedi- 
ately school attendance was increased. 

But this is anticipating. The exhibition was not 
till 1854, after native women had learned to sew. 

Before this, while still the people came to study at 
irregular times, Mrs. Gulick was making the serious 
experiment of keeping house on Ponape. In truth it 
was a grave undertaking, this housekeeping in a land 
where neither cook nor maid had ever used knife, or 
fork, or spoon, or plate, or broom ; among a people 
who, never having used vessels of metal or pottery, did 
not know that water boiled ; who shrewdly considered 
chairs and tables and beds as the needless luxuries 
of a weakened humanity. Yet, such as they were, 
Mrs. Gulick had at first no difficulty in securing 
servants. These were always j^oung boys ready to 
earn a shirt or " a hatchet, the reward of service. 
What profit to them was money ? For, as they said : 
" We can neither eat it nor wear it." 

Unfortunately, however, even shirts had their draw- 
backs. They induced worldly thoughts, demoralized 
these Micronesian youths, made them haughty and 

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proud, raised them " above their station." And this, 
though in the beginning it was diflScult to enforce the 
regulation that no boy should do household duties 
without the adornment of a shurt. Unaccustomed 
sun-browned bodies had instinctively rebelled against 
these fetters of civilization.* Yet in time they yielded 
so far as to inspire the following brief serio-comic 
history of civilization : — 

" Our native boy did very well till I gave him a 
shirt. He then became of more consequence in his own 
eyes, and avoided all outdoor work. About two weeks 
since I gave Olel and Laiten each a pair of trowsers. 
This seemed to throw them very nearly off their 
balance. They began to be impudent. Yesterday 
Laiten sold both his shirt and trowsers for a bottle of 
grog; and now he is striding about as destitute as 
ever. But there is one good thing about it: he is 
not so impudent without his trowsers." 

Verily, a life of mixed necessities this was on 
Ponape, where manners no less than morals and edu- 
cation waited to be molded by the missionary. In 
addition Dr. Gulick was, at different times, many other 
things : cook, shoemaker, carpenter, blacksmith, dress- 
maker, no less than spiritual guide and inspiration of 
the nation ; and at Shalong each vocation seems to 
have had its period. 

In 1855 Dr. Gulick was preeminently a carpenter. 

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During this year there sprang up near his home a 
straw- thatched group of buildings, as potent for good, 
as beautiful perhaps in angels' eyes as that other 
wonderful group at Pisa. Instead of cathedral, bap- 
tistry, and campanile, here were chapel, schoolhouse, 
and hospital. Instead of white marble and sculptured 
columns and hallowed earth from Palestine, here were 
rough-hewn logs, and reeds and straw. Instead of 
vast expense and skilled architects, here the material 
was had for its cutting, and the bishop himself did 
most of the work. 

We follow this building from day to day and realize 
the physical stf-ain it was to one who had never really 
toiled with his hands before : — 

"Spent the whole day in work; erected the frame 
of my so-called hospital." 

'' Worked all the afternoon up to my knees in water 
getting out timber for building." 

" I pray for grace to enable me to make even my 
physical labors tend to missionary usefulness." 

"Worked hewing out logs for washstand and 
pulpit stand. Set up new bedstead in our room. 
How I grudge the time ! " 

Through this year there were natives to be hired 
sometimes and 'trade that secured them. Tobacco 
would always have done it ; but by the last of 1854 
novelty and hatchets and knives and beads and shirts 

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all failed together. Mrs. Gulick was ill for months, 
and a new dilemma confronted the missionary enthu- 
siasm of Dr. Gulick. Could it be that this was the 
work to which he had been called? But there was 
no alternative. From the carpenter's bench he moved 
to the kitchen, and with serious face and zeal that 
did not flinch the student who had grown up in the 
library with his pen worked as untiringly now- with 
stove and broom and soapsuds as ever he had worked 
with Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. 

After it was all over, from a distance far enough 
to soften hard outlines and lend proverbial enchant- 
ment to the view, the experience wJls interesting. 
At the time, however, it was hard. The journal does 
not complain ; it simply states facts in a series of 
laconic items. For successive months these facts 
include very stern realities of housework, and there 
is the monotony of sameness about them : — 

*' Attended to meals, to washing clothes, and to 
getting firewood." 

' ' So fatigued with household work and with mend- 
ing my back veranda that I retire early." 

"Last night mended my own and Louisa's shoes. 
The next time I shall succeed more like a workman." 

"I am doing very little direct missionary work. 
Our hearts ache ; but what can we do? Wife is sick. 
Nearly all the household and outdoor work falls on 

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myself alone, washing and everything. We have had 
a nurse for a short period, otherwise we have had no 
help for about four months." 

"Washed clothes, got breakfast, and while doing 
it read some." As sedately recorded as if reading 
and cooking were a normal combination! Indeed, 
there is no abatement yet to the thirsty desire for 
thoughts and books which have ever characterized 
Dr. Gulick. 

"Wife sick. Went to Takain. Bought a canoe. 
Got dinner. Read Gibbon. Meditated on sermon 
for to-morrow." 

" Rose before daylight, which is my habit, for the 
purpose of securing a little time for my Greek 
Testament and private preparation for the day." 

" Not felt well. Planted bananas. Made bread 
and pudding. Read Father Bipa's Residence in China. 
Wife sick." 

"Would that tears of sorrow could avail against 
these difficulties ! Prayerful tears may ; we therefore 
pray much. The hardest labors would be easier than 
this forced, struggling, inglorious quiescence." 

"Hope ever! Good shall yet come out of this 
apparently fruitless life." 

Then again, later; — 

" I do seem to need a servant. My salary will 
hardly pay for keeping a foreigner, yet I seem tc 

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myself hardly the person for a cook. Mr. Sturges 
has been in the same difficulty for over a year. He 
is not yet delivered. Am I to remain in the same for 
as long a time? I pray for grace." 

Mrs. Gulick, from her sick bed, wrote to her 
mother : — 

^' I am so weak and Halsey is all in all ; but it does 
not seem right for such a man to spend months in 
domestic service. Yet think not we are disheartened. 
No, no ; we are often merry and almost forget our 
troubles. We love to praise our heavenly Father for 
the innumerable blessings that still abound to us." 

Doubtless there were blessings, yet to us, at this 
distance, verily life's trials overshadowed them. One 
trial that towered high- sometimes was the difficulty they 
had in securing food. In 1853 they already suffered 
physically from lack of fresh meat. All the meat they 
had was salted. In 1854 when trade failed and annual 
supplies had not yet come, they sometimes went to bed 
hungry. For without the equivalent for money, food 
was no more easily bought in Micronesia than in New 
York. Indeed the missionary in Micronesia was under 
peculiar disadvantage. He kept neither firearms nor 
powder, nor liquor nor tobacco. These were gold on 
Ponape always at par. The more fluctuating currency 
was represented by beads, knives, hatchets, and red 
flannel. When these were gone the wolf boldly 

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looked in at the doorway ; at times he even walked 
into the house. 

"During these seasons of enforced scarcity," writes 
Dr. Gulick, " tropical fruit ripening over our heads 
without our being able to buy them, we fell back on 
our foreign supplies, consisting mainly of salted meats 
and flour. But these were often poor or quite uneat- 
able from the dampness of the torrid zone. The 
flour in the barrels was often so caked by moisture 
that we had to cut it out with hatchets, and worms 
an inch long often developed in it numerously." Your 
pardon, gentle reader, but so it is written. And this 
was the flour they were trying to eat ! "So long as 
we retained our health we got along very well, but 
when health and appetite both failed we were at a 

" During shipping season, which is from October to 
May, it is difficult for us to purchase a breadfruit or 
bunch of bananas, or to hire a native for any purpose." 

This is explained by the fact that the ships bought 
all that the natives cared to sell, and paid for what 
they bought in tobacco and powder. At such times 
Dr. Gulick shot wild pigeons. But his gun failed him 
and there was nothing for it but to endure ; and then 
we trace the touching entries : — 

" We are becoming quite needy. Will not the Lord 
soon provide and soon relieve us ? " 

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''Received the present of a leg of pork from our 
chief. It is the first piece of fresh meat we have 
tasted in more than three months." 

"We shall soon suffer if our supplies do not 

Then Mrs. Gulick itemizes : — 

"We are quite short of food now; indeed, never 
so short before and unable to buy. We have some 
most miserable salt beef, not a quarter of a barrel of 
flour, some tapioca, about one pound of butter, mo- 
lasses and sugar, tea and coffee. This with arrow- 
root and a little preserved ginger constitutes all our 
foreign food. We are living from hand to mouth 
almost, but trust in our Father's care." 

"Halsey brought from Rono Kiti about a pint of 
fresh milk, which was the first I had seen since we 
left the Hawaiian Islands nearly tlu'ee years ago." 

Later she adds : " We have succeeded in purchasing 
from a captain two hundred pounds of flour and two 
hundred pounds of hard bread, which will keep us all 
from being hungry." Or, as Dr. Gulick expresses 
it, " This will keep us from starvation." So once 
more ravens fed the prophet ! 

And this was Micronesia ! this the altar of his sac- 
rifice ; this the high point of all his preparation ! 
Did there come a sense of sweeping disappointment as 
of sacrifice larger than was needed? We do not know. 

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From first to last no whisper of disappointment is 
recorded, but ttie whole journal with its minutiae, its 
pathos, its self-unconsciousness, reads like a romance 
to hearts that realize what isolation and privation 
sometimes meant in Micronesia. 

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TO missionaries prepared to meet it, the prospect 
of isolation had not seemed overwhelming when 
the Caroline left, to come again once a year. Yet 
unconsciously the}' centered all their hope of physical 
and mental life upon her regular visits, and with no 
thought of disappointment they waited for her coming. 

She returned to them once, and then, after many 
months, a whaler brought letters which told them 
that, because it cost so much to send her every year, 
the Caroline had been sold, and that in future both 
mail and supplies would be sent to Micronesia by 
whalers as the opportunity offered itself in Honolulu. 
This was so unexpected that missionary heroism was 
staggered for a moment; and though in reply Dr. 
Gulick assured the Hawaiian Missionary Society that, 
in view of its lack of funds, he had " not the least 
doubt but that its action was in every respect for the 
best," still his pain could not be concealed. 

"Our hearts received a stunning blow," he writes, 
"when we heard that the only cord of connection 
between ourselves and the Christian world was by 


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their act dissevered, and that, so far as the slightest 
extra provision was made, we were left to sink or 
swim, as God might please. Our hearts almost 

This irregularity of communication continued until 
1857, when children's pennies sent the Morning Star 
to Micronesia. Of whalers who, in the meantime, 
visited them, some only had touched at Honolulu ; 
and among these but few secured and brought the 
mail to Micronesia. 

The shipping season continued from October to 
May. Naturally, therefore, with the first of October 
missionaries on Ponape began to look daily, almost 
hourly, for their annual mail. Often it was late in 
coming. At such times slow days rolled on into the 
weeks. Six months passed without a letter from the 
world ; ten months even ; twelve months, and still no 
letter. Ship after ship appeared on the horizon, 
crossed the shining, wide ocean, and reached harbor at 
last. But to the eager inquiry for mail and supplies 
there came, over and over again, the same answer: 
*' We have nothing for you." 

As months passed, the earnest desire of these mis- 
sionaries became an almost hopeless cry for help. 
' The luxuries of life were gone ; its bare necessities 
very low ; and who can measure their famishiug 
mental hunger? To have body and mind both starve 

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on Ponape were tragic indeed^ yet both were threat- 
ened sometimes. 

Dr. and Mrs. Gulick do not speak very often of 
the pain this isolation brought them, but we easily 
trace it : — 

*'My heart would hardly be quieted at night as I 
felt that nine ships had disappointed us." 

" We scan the horizon every morning with the deep- 
est interest, and the shout of ' Chop ! chop ! ' thrills 
through all our frame." 

"Thirteen ships have anchored in the harbor of this 
Island, yet only one brought us letters." 

" There are times in our beloved Micronesia when 
we are put upon looking toward the unseen to keep 
'our hearts from utter failure." 

"It is hard to let go our last links to the out- 
side world. But we may erelong learn to be con- 
tent alone with the remembrance of our heavenly 

" Our hearts are sick, our souls faint, our eyes 
wearied in the watching." 

Then, at last, beyond the canoes and the natives that 
frolicked in the water, beyond the fringing reef and 
the breakers, "eyes wearied in the watching" saw 
the outline of another sail. This time it was the ship 
they waited for; and when it came natives too 
rejoiced, for they too had hopes in the annual mail. 

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Perchance it would bring to them beads and fishhooks, 
red flannel and shirts ! 

After thirteen months of such waiting once, Dr, 
Gulick confessed to "an almost nervous fever that 
had preyed upon them." *'Day by day," he says, 
'* and many times a day, have our eyes involuntarily 
ranged the horizon. Minute darkened clouds, to our 
ready imagination, have assumed the appearance of 
Ascension Island bound vessels. The peculiar shout- 
ing of the natives when a ship was certainly in sight 
has thrilled us like shocks of electricity. As these 
ships have passed along our coast for one of the more 
southern harbors of the island, with what excited 
nerves have we attempted to perform our regular 
routine of missionary work, till in some way we have 
definitely learned, two or three days later, that there 
was no mail on board. 

" Nor does our excitement abate with the actual 
arrival of the thirteen months' 'mail. On its first 
announcement, how the heart leaps ! The canoe is 
hastily launched, the paddles splash the brine regu- 
larly, the sail almost spontaneously spreads itself; 
and so we speed along for perhaps twenty miles. 
The magic package of letters is at last secured. The 
fever is at its height. The crisis arrives. Envelope 
after envelope is rapidly torn, its contents barely 
skimmed. Thrills of joy and spasms of sorrow flash 

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through us, till at last the overstrained nerves almost 
ceaee to react under either stimulation. The face 
is flushed ; the mind confused ; the heart surcharged. 
We return to our home to reread the budget more 
at leisure and talk it over and dream it over. A 
twelve months' mail is a blessed privilege, but a sad 

Letters which whalers carried to the world from 
Ponape were passed on by them to others, and usually 
reached America via China, the Okotsk Sea, and Hon- 
olulu ; and because the tide of shipping was all in the 
same direction, even letters to the missionary neigh- 
bors on Kusaie followed the same circuitous route, 
reaching their destination at last from Hawaii. 

Thus also were orders sent once a year for all the 
foreign goods that Micronesia needed — provisions for 
a year, material for building, tools, and trade, furniture 
and clothing. And those orders spent a year in going, 
the supplies a year in coming. They were used the 
third year. 

It must have taken the keenness of a prophet's eye 
to anticipate wants in Micronesia two years before 
they were felt! Who could tell that a stove would 
so rust at Shalong that a new one would be needed in 
two years? Who could anticipate a fire that should 
consume Mr. Sturges' home in Rono Kiti and involve 
the cordial dividing of household goods at the other 

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home in Shalong? Verily, though there be large 
measure of love, half a loaf divided leaves very 

Ordering supplies was certainly important, but how 
measure the delight Dr. Gulick felt in sending his 
annual order for new books ? Orders of varying size 

— seventy-five dollars one year, one hundred the next 

— large sums to spare from Micronesian salaries, but 
curtailment came on other things. Physical comforts 
they could forego ; books they must have ; therefore 
they sent for what they thought they needed. But 
disappointment came sometimes as a sequel ; notably 
so after their first large order was sent. 

For months, physical hunger, economy, and self- 
denial had been easier to bear because of what they 
thought this lack on one hand might mean of plenty on 
the other. Two years had passed; and now eyes 
strained every day over the horizon were looking for 
the annual mail and for the books. But what if 
breathless suspense were to go unrewarded this year ? 
What if there were no mail ? What if shipwreck had 
overtaken those books? So they questioned. And 
then the end came. 

The mail arrived ; but instead of books they 
received an almost incredible message. Agents act- 
ing for Dr. Gulick had refused to meet the bill for all 
the books he ordered. By some mistake they thought 

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he had overdrawn his salary. Older heads felt wiser 
than the student there on Ponape, and using their 
discretion, they sent him what they thought he needed 

No telegraph wires to summon his books ; no ship 
to bring them ; and two more years of waiting before 
they could reach him ! Surely this was harder to meet 
bravely as a Christian than heathenism itsdf . 

Though numbed by the pain of his disappointment, 
Dr. Gulick accepted the inevitable — what else was 
possible in Micronesia? But he took immediate 
action. He directed that an ox given him on Hawaii 
be sold, the proceeds to go for books. His only watch 
he sent to Honolulu, this also to be exchanged for 
books. The emergency was great. 

" Books," he says, " are Louisa's and my life. 
They are more important to us than beef or pork, or 
even red flannel and red beads." 

*' We must have books if nothing else. To deprive 
us of them is cruelty." 

As a brighter side to the picture, it is pleasant to 
know that Dr. Gulick's father, hearing that the books 
had not been sent, himself paid for them, and soon 
had opportunity to forward them to Ponape. It is 
also pleasant to know that friends everywhere increas- 
ingly realized that no libraries were found in Micro- 
nesia, and that four hundred dollars a year was small 

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measure for the maintenance alike of body and mind. 
Eemembering too that Dr. Guliek, buried in Micro- 
nesia, a missionary, was still human, still intellectual, 
still filled with a restless desire to keep pace with the 
thought of the world, they sent him books as gifts. 
In a single year thirty-five volumes came from his 
home church, the Broadway Tabernacle of New York 
city. Does the hungry man welcome food ? Then we 
appreciate the welcome these books received. 

" Thank you for the books," he says : " thank you 
over and over ! My mind will be the livelier and my 
heart the holier, I hope." 

Thus, even in Micronesia, the library grew. Four 
hundred volumes were soon increased to six hundred ; 
and in 1859 twenty boxes carried Dr. Gulick's 
library of one thousand volumes from the narrow 
doorway of the cottage at Shalong. 

Reading kept pace with the growing library. Pages 
might be filled, as they are in Dr. Gulick's journal, 
with simple mention of the books he read, and chap- 
ters might follow with his comments upon them. Little 
of all this can be introduced here, yet enough perhaps 
to show that these signs of mental life do not come as 
an echoing voice, as a plaintive wail from buried 
depths ; but that they are the criticisms, the appreci- 
ation of an independent student. 

''Am engaged in Biblical studies," he writes; 

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"Greek, Hebrew, and English. At intervals, also 
am pursuing my investigations regarding New 
England theology. Have been reading the younger 
Edwards and Mahan, of Oberlin. The latter has 
very little metaphysical talent, I fancy. He deals in 
assertions rather than reasonings on all the hinge 

"Have accomplished much in the study of Greek 
and of modern history during the past year, for which 
I am grateful." 

Of Knox's "The Races," he says: "A somewhat 
original, but not a commendable writer. He belongs 
to the race of literary Ishmaelites. His science is 
assertion, his argument sarcasm, his wit a grin." 

At greater length is the following, to his brother 
John, then at Williams College. It is significant of 
the freedom his mind held for itself, for it should be 
remembered that in 1856 theories of evolution were 
not so readily accepted as they are to-day. 

After pages of close reasoning on the subject, he 
expresses little sympathy for " the unlearned and con- 
servative Bible readers who are too ignorant or too 
perverse to read nature also"; for those who "with 
frivolous fear think the devil seizes all that science 
demonstrates to be under the operation of natural law." 

As for the creation of life itself, he finds that 
" McCosh, like Miller, sets up a barrier very close to 

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US and thinks that because science has not yet, in 
its very babyhood, learned how the properties of 
matter are so adjusted as to produce life, that there- 
fore we must rise directly ' to the only known cause 
capable of producing it — the fiat of the Creator.'" 
Over this he grows impatient and exclaims: "Why 
thus put the extinguisher on our young science and 
force it to wish a divorce from religion ? " 

Thus from the smallness of Micronesia did Dr. 
Gulick reach out into the world of thought and lay hold 
upon it. The truth is he fought for mental life as a 
man in dire extremity fights for physical existence. 
In part, it was the same instinct of self-preservation 
that held him to it. Yet even here he saw danger lest 
studies *•' interfere with the highest efficiency of action." 

"Action and study," he adds, "cannot be antago- 
nistic. They are indispensable coadjutors ; I cannot 
be a full-grown missionary without both." For this 
reason he combined the two. He wrote down his 
plans ; he followed them faithfully ; and when the 
month or year was ended he reviewed what he had 
done in the light of what he had intended to do.^ 

1 The following is the outline planned for one month : — 

I. Study of Ponape language. 1. By much conversation with the 
natives. 2. By filling out my vocabulary. 3. By preparing First Les- 
sons. 4. By writing Scripture lessons. 

II. Teaching natives. 1. Our domestics In English. 2. School in 
Ponape. 3. Religious conversations. 4. Sabbath exercises. 

III. Literary occupation. 1. Missionary journals for Boston. 2. A 

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After such a plan sent once to a brother, — a plan 
to undertake through successive years, as recreation, 
the scientific study of geology, botany, conchology, 
ichthyology, etc., — he pauses suddenly, as if he real- 
ized that no one else could quite understand the 
situation, and a moment later adds a pathetic closing 
question, the key to his ceaseless activity : " You 
perhaps will think me planning much for the future, 
yet how else shall I keep myself from sinking under 
the stagnation of this Ponape life?" 

To f urtlier help him were his magazines and papers,^ 
and his comments on the news they brought him show 
how eagerly he followed the shifting circles of history. 
At best, however, he felt very far off from them, for 
all this reading and thinking and writing wad slipped 
between months that were locked away in Micronesian 

Like figures in a fairy tale who wake to action 

few letters. 3 Medical thesis. 4. Morning and eveniDg, Hebrew Bible. 
5. New England Theology. 6. Ichthyology. 

IV. Physical labor. 1. Preparation of canoe. 2. Building school- 
house. 3. Finishing veranda. 4. Sides of my house. 

iThe order for one year was as follows : — 

The Missionary Herald, New York Observer, The New York Inde- 
pendent, The New York Weekly Tribune, Littell's Living Age, The 
Christian Retrospect, The Scientific Annual, Sttyker's Americau Regis- 
ter, The Princeton Review, The London Lancet, Braithwaite's Retro- 
spect, The Medico-chirurgical Review, The Colonization Journal, The 
Peace Advocate, The American Messenger, The American Bible 
Society Record, The Baptist Missionary paper, The Church Mission- 
ary, The American anrl Foreign Christian Union, Stillman's American 
Journal of Science, The Smithsonian Bulletin. (This last was not sent 
to him.) 

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at stated intervals and then fall back to sleep 
again, so life seemed to pass on Ponape. Months 
of quiet found their climax in days of intensity, 
when friends and all the world drew near them at once ; 
then the silence of utter separation shut them in again, 
the sleep that seemed eternal " in an eternal night." 

Sometimes when he felt it most Dr. Gulick turned 
upon himself with stern questions. Sometimes there 
was the word of pity, of encouragement, and some- 
times, though rarely dwelt upon, he paints a graphic 
picture of their quiet life : — 

'*For weeks and often for months together/* he 
writes, "I neither see nor converse with a 'white 
face,' save my precious wife. I work in my garden, 
read and write in my pleasant library, paddle my canoe 
from place to place to tell of divine pardon, and occa- 
sionally paddle to Rono Kiti on some errand to my 
fellow missionary ; and thus do my days float past, 
noiseless as unimpeded waves of air. It is with some 
diflSculty we keep correct record of our days, there 
is so very little to distinguish one from another. We 
often temporarily lose or gain a day, and one of my 
fellow missionaries recently gained a whole week/* 

*' I must bear up against the tendency of all things 
here to listless idleness." 

'* I must learn to be content with this sleepy Ponape 
life, for Providence has evidently led me into it." 

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" In this land of sleep no life could flow more 
quietly than mine. I can scarcely hear it ripple about 
me and am just conscious of motion." 

"What an isolated being I am! How even the 
flow of my days ! Perhaps it is as well. I shall be 
able to concentrate my mind the more." 

From their loneliness they begged their praying 
friends to remember and to help them : — 

" O my Christian brothers, I pray you not forget 
us ! " 

''Are we, indeed, remembered in the prayers of 
Christians? Assure us of it and we shall be the 

" We can scarcely realize we are remembered much 
when we hear from you only once a year. How we, 
need your prayers ! " 

''My heart is sore all over." 

' ' Do not forget us when you pray ! " 

''This is a desert land and our souls are hungry. 
Oh, my brothers, pray for us." 

"Adieu; pray. Halsey." 

And this is no flight of imagination. No onlooker 
can breathe into that life in Micronesia more of pathos 
and of loneliness than was actually there, lived every 
<iay by men and women who were trying to lift an 
island world into Christian life. 

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IN spite of this extreme isolation, eDhanced, indeed, 
by it was the interest Dr. Gulick took in every 
question relating to Ponape itself and to the whole of 
Micronesia. He ordered and read all that he could 
find printed about the islands of the Pacific. He 
traced the probable course of migration as people in 
canoes were drifted from island to island by winds 
and by currents. He saw, too, the obscure line of 
change in language ; the growing dissimilarity where 
islands were more and more widely separated from 
each other, and the increased poverty of language 
where these islands were so low by nature as to lack 
even a physical basis for mental outlook. He per- 
ceived also the evident original unity of most of these 
scattered island dialects. 

So carefully did he study Micronesian geography 
that his descriptions of many of the islands are now 
incorporated in the sailing directions used by all mari- 
ners in that part of the Pacific. And where previ- 
ously the Micronesian page iu children's geographies 


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had been a chaos of indefiuiteness, obscurity, and 
blunder, light and order were introduced through his 
untiring efforts. 

For his own satisfaction he wished to know the 
truth about the land of his adoption, and for the 
sake of the world, having arrived at conclusions satis- 
factory to himself, be published them. 

The closest study of conditions was of necessity 
done on Pouape. Here he found and minutely re- 
ported the earliest native productions and the later 
increase of vegetable and animal wealth through 
foreign imports. Concerniug animal life he shows 
that, before history bad made any note of their arrival, 
there were on Ponape birds, rats, bats, lizards, cen- 
tipedes, scorpions, ants, fleas, and flies ; and that 
between 1832 and 1851, pigs, dogs, ducks, fowls, and 
cats were introduced. 

Variety of stock increased more rapidly after mis- 
sionaries came, and much of it was a source of aston- 
ishment to the simple-minded natives. Cats and dogs 
had seemed large, but how appalling was Mr. Sturges' 
cow ! They first feared and then teased her ; and 
when with her horns she tossed them into the bushes 
they were surprised and wanted to stone her. 

Varieties of plant life also multiplied with the com- 
ing of the missionary. Every mail brought seeds from 
Hawaii and America ; and these were planted with 

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varying success. In a climate whose extremes of 
temperature were 72° and 89° a luxuriant tropical 
growth was to be expected. Yet even this did 
not insure success. Melon vines grew apace, ''but," 
says Dr. Gulick, "rats eat our melons before they 
ripen. And to aggravate the matter, the natives 
eat cats ! " Potato vines grew like splendid weeds, 
but after two years the potatoes themselves had 
degenerated to mere fibers. Why, indeed, should 
roots store nourishment for vines that never could 
need a reserve supply? Nature was thus an open 
book, teaching many practical lessons. 

On Ponape and Kusaie alike there were massive 
architectural ruius that gave rapid wing to foreign 
imagination. On Ponape these ruins covered fifteen 
acres, and were so divided by canals as to seem a 
group of artificial islands. Each island was banked 
with stone to protect it from the wear of waves, 
and each was a regular parallelogram. Standing as 
part of these ruins were walls thirty feet high, six feet 
thick at the top, eighteen at the bottom, and terraced 
on the inside from base to summit. All were built of 
natural basaltic prisms, four, five, and six feet sided ; 
sometimes ten feet long and two feet thick, and with- 
out mark of any edged tool upon them. Through 
these massive walls there were openings large enough 
to admit a creeping man, and within were vaults con- 

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taining human bones. Here too a Spanish crucifix 
had been found, some beads also, and a silver triangle. 
But canals choked with tropic growth, broken walls 
and growing trees, luxuriant vines and fragrant blos- 
soms concealing the ruins, told that ages had passed 
since they were built. 

Romantic foreigners attributed the work to another 
race and to prehistoric times, to the daj^, perhaps, 
when Ponape and Kusaie were but parts of some vast 
continent now submerged ; yet Kusaiean tradition 
claimed the work for her own past, and tradition on 
Ponape faintly spoke of giants who had lived and 
wrought and died before the present race arrived. 

But whether built by ancestors or by a previous 
race. Dr. Gulick caught the meaning of the inarticulate 
speech of these dumb witnesses. He felt for those 
who, having once lived, wished to be remembered ; 
for men who " beneath cocoanut, breadfruit, orange, 
and banyan trees have left such worthy memorials of 
bygone ages." " No wonder," he adds, "that living 
descendants of such worthy ancestors walk proudly 
in the shadow of this greatness, a greatness more 
overpowering to them than to us, but respectable to 
any who consider with what meager appliances these 
Micronesian Sennacheribs and Pharaohs executed 
their despotic wills." "How interesting to find pos- 
thumous fame as potent on an island for ages separated 

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from the mass of humanity as in any crowded center 
of empire ! " 

All that glory was past for Kusaie. But on Ponape, 
whatever the object in building had been, parts of 
these ruins were hallowed places still. In one, kings 
were buried ; in another, spirits talked through priests 
to men ; in still another, tradition placed a sacred 
pond, and within this pond a sacred eel that lived 
alone and hungered ; and it was said that zealous 
priests, to feed it, walked silently backward to the 
spot, dropped the offering into the water, and breath- 
lessly sped away. But with Saxon incredulity Dr. 
Gulick one day explored the region of this mystery 
and found neither water, pond, nor sacred eel. 

Thus on Ponape did priests easily delude the 
people. But here, as elsewhere in Micronesia, idol 
worship was unknown. When spiritual longing 
touched the people they worshiped spirits and the 
shades of their ancestors. Not a graven image nor 
a temple made with hands had ever stood on Ponape. 
In their stead were hallowed spots where priests 
mumbled incantations and cheerful worshipers offered 
bloodless sacrifice. With food enough before them 
and feasting long enough continued, spirits were will- 
ing to speak through the priests who prophesied to 
believing people. Religion on Ponape was little else 
Nothing evil was forbidden by it ; yet back of all the 

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prophesying and the sacrificing and the sinning was 
the voice of God within them — the unflinching moral 
nature that even here was recognized. 

"Certainly," said the heathen when he was ques- 
tioned ; '' we know it is wrong to steal and to kill and 
to lie. We feel it here," striking his breast. And 
Dr. Gulick testified : — 

"These people have consciences, to which I appeal 
without hesitation on all the cardinal points of moral- 
ity, and they respond correctly. It may, however, 
quite safely be said that they are destitute of pure 
moral principle. When truthful, honest, and virtuous, 
it is because present interest constrains ; and gener- 
ally even the strongest of present interests will not 
secure such high-principled action." 

In pleasant human fashion the people loved their 
neighbors when they were lovable ; and tliey were 
too good-natured to murder very often. But, so far 
as recorded, good King George of Eusaie is the 
one example in Micronesia of a man who before the 
advent of Christianity did right because it was right. 

Their religion was heathenism in one of its most 
spiritual forms, and it was easy here to teach the 
spirituality of God — so easy that the natives at once 
found resemblance between their ideal and this God 
that missionaries told them was very real and ever 
present. As to a future life, however, Mrs. Gulick 

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writes: "The chiefs are offended that the common 
people can go to the same heaven with themselves ! " 
That seems to have been at first the extent of theii* 
religious thinking. Indeed, while health and pros- 
perity continued there was no cry in Micronesia for a 
better faith ; but when calamity threatened there was 
despair and awakened spiritual life. Such an awaken- 
ing occurred for Ponape in 1854. 

In April a foreign sailor, hopelessly ill with small- 
pox, had been placed on shore to die. His ship had 
sailed away and left him there. He died ; and in 
spite of vigorous protest from the missionaries, 
natives gleefully appropriated the dead man's cloth- 
ing and proudly arrayed themselves in it. With these 
contaminated garments the smallpox began its work. 
Even then, however, the missionaries hoped its victims 
might be few ; but by the middle of May the last hope 
died. The disease was upon them with all its horror. 

As if this were not enough, there was no vaccine 
matter on the island. Vinus brought by Dr. Gulick 
had long ago lost its power, and other, ordered later, 
had not yet arrived. 

In the line of immediate action Dr. Gulick saw 
that his only hope of helping the nation was through 
inoculation with the smallpox virus itself. On the 
eighteenth of May he therefore inoculated himself 
and five others. On the 29th he recognized in 

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himself the smallpox fever, started homeward from 
Rono Kiti, was upset in his canoe, spent hours in 
cold water and wet clothing, and on arriving at 
Shalong retired alone to his small hospital — to die, 
if God willed, to recover and be the savior of the 
people, if he should spare. 

For the safety of others he thus isolated himself ; 
and while he watched his symptoms and waited to 
know the will of God, his wife, in their home, with 
aching heart and bitter tears, prayed to God for the 
life of her husband. And who may know what the 
agony of that praying was? On Ponape only God 
had power enough to help them, and he was invisible ! 

After two days of suspense the fever passed. Life 
and not death was before him ; and now for six 
terrible months, through rain and through sunshine, 
Dr. Gulick and his fellow missionaries struggled 
with the pestilence. What a battle ! Whole neigh- 
borhoods devoted themselves to the killing of pigs 
and dogs, to cooking, and to feasting — their reason 
the spreading epidemic. " Eat, therefore, and drink," 
they said, " for to-morrow we die." As a natural 
result, they often did die on the morrow. 

In half-hearted faith priests tried to propitiate 
offended spirits ; but there was universal belief that 
Ponapean spirits were powerless against the might of 
this foreign disease. Better, they suggested, to give 

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Dr. Galick himself a great feast, that he might pro- 
pitiate the stronger God of the white man ; but even 
without a feast Dr. Gulick promised to pray for them. 
And how he prayed ! 

Yet still the epidemic spread. Even the white 
man's God seemed powerless against the might of his 
own disease ; and at last priests on Ponape made 
formal demand, in the name of their gods and their 
afflicted people, for the life of this impotent messen- 
ger of a relentless foreign God. They demanded that 
he be shot. Most happily for themselves, however, a 
friendly king dared to defy spirits and priests alike. 
Stronger than Pilate under similar pressure, he did 
not surrender the young doctor to them. 

Through May and June, as fast as the natives 
allowed it, they were inoculated. And to the mis- 
sionaries it meant everything that was worth caring 
for on Ponape whether life or death should follow 
this inoculation. 

Mercifully, the larger part lived. Confidence in 
missionary power and integrity revived. And by the 
middle of June stricken people by scores and by 
hundreds were turning to Dr. Gulick as their only 
hope. Neighbors resigned themselves to his care ; 
priests gave up their incantations, and with their 
wives and children gratefully accepted the foreign 
antidote to this appalling foreign disease. 

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But in spite of every effort how the smallpox swept 
its way across the stricken island ! 

" Daring June and July when the disease was 
raging in our immediate neighborhood," writes Dr. 
Gulick, " scarce a native visited our house. Grass 
grew in all the paths far and wide about us, and the 
disease was the only topic of conversation the island 
round. The incessant query was for the latest reports 
from the various tribes as to places attacked and the 
number of the dead. As one and another chief of 
our own or some other tribe fell, the panic increased. 
Whole families and neighborhoods were so prostrated 
at once that frequently scarce an individual escaped 
to procure water and food of the coarsest quality for 
the sick ; thus many died of starvation. 

"The propensity was to crowd houses full; and 
there they lay, occupying frequently every square foot, 
groaning, gasping, and sweltering in the poisoned 
compound of air, heat, smoke, and smallpox effluvia 
till death released the greater number." 

There was so much to do and so little time 
for writing, that journal records, during these 
months, are often nothing more than ejaculations of 
pity: — 

" I never before was among more horrible wretch- 

"Our hearts are rent." 

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" I have never before witnessed such wretched and 
harrowing misery." 

" Such misery I never before saw, and hope 
never again to meet, unless I can give more eflScient 
assistance than I find it possible now to render." 
And months after it was all over, ears could not forget 
what they had heard : — 

" We still hear but too distinctly," writes Dr. 
Giilick, " the groaning and screeching that echoed 
through whole neighborhoods of breadfruit groves. 
We can give no adequate idea of the deadly gloom 
that hung over us during those dreadful months." 

With the pressure of such suffering behind them the 
people had naturally come in increasing numbers to be 
inoculated ; eleven one day, thirteen the next, soon 
twenty a day, then thirty ; forty-five in a single day ; 
one hundred and fifty-six in a week. So many crowded 
tbis surest road to life that on the fifth of August 
Dr. Gulick met a pathetically amusing condition of 
eagerness : — 

"The scene was to me," he says, '*a new one in 
my Ponape life. I found them ready and impatient 
to be inoculated. As I sat in the little house they 
crowded about the side doors, waiting their turns 
with impatience. They came of every age and size. 
Fathers and mothers brought their infants and held 
them firmly for me to operate on. Some of the chil- 

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dren just old enough to be frightened shouted lustily, of 
course. Those of the same age, yet outdoors and about 
to be brought in, joined in the chorus ; and these baby 
screechings, with the exceedingly vigorous vociferations 
of twenty-five or thirty adults, made a glorious din." 

This is the lighter touch to a picture so dark that 
shadows do not show against it. On every hand, in 
every degree of suffering, were more who died every 
day than could come for inoculation ; and death from 
smallpox in a home on Ponape meant more of pain 
than civilization can easily picture. In truth, this 
scourge is sad enough where soft sheets and gentle 
hands and tender nursing and Christian hope are its 
ministers. But on Ponape how different I Hard 
floor and rough mats and breathless air and hunger 
and ignorance and despair all seemed joined of hand 
to hasten their cruel fate. 

And when the people died they were buried ; but 
so many were dying every day that it was hard to 
bury them all; and there was such haste in burying 
that, half an hour after apparent death, sick bodies 
often rested in their crowded graves. '' Buried alive 
sometimes," as Dr. Gulick believed ; " many of them, 
no doubt, afterward reviving just sufficiently to pass 
through all the horror of a second dying." 

Through these months the pathos of heathen burial 
appeared in each extreme ; in its heartlessness was 

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the cold brutality that wrapped an unclad, unloved 
body in discarded mats, thrust it into a shallow grave, 
filled it speedily with leaves and with earth, and danced 
in glee upon it ; and in its hopelessness was the bitter 
separation from earthly clay, the newest garment 
tenderly wrapped about it, and the precious human 
casket borne by weeping friends to its resting place. 
There, with treasures of powder and pipe and beads 
and flowers, amid genuine grief and blinding tears, 
loving hands placed the body out of sight and gently 
pressed the earth upon it. 

Surely human grief at parting is sad enough in any 
land, but saddest where there is no hope of future 

Six months of dreadful history came to an end at 
last. And thereafter for years, as the Roman empire 
measured time from the building of its city, A. U. C, 
so history on Ponape was in sadder memory reckoned 
from the digging of its graves, from the era of the 
smallpox. Before the scourge were ten thousand 
merry people, physical and spiritual content, tolerance 
of the missionary, indifference to his message ; after 
it five thousand bereaved human beings, half the 
people buried, national paralysis for a season ; then 
spiritual restlessness, intellectual quickening, an era 
of awakened life — a fearful ordeal for the nation, but 
marking an epoch. 

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\ 1 r iTH the year 1857 missionary work on Ponape 

▼ V reached a climax in several directions. 

Months of prostration had followed the epidemic. 
The nation had beeii stunned, and life returned slowly. 
It was as if, trying to forget deserted places, vacant 
houses, and daily loneliness, the people dimly felt 
they might best succeed by surrendering to the new 

Whatever the philosophy of it, certain it is that a 
turning point had been reached in Ponapean history. 
There now sprang up an interest in reading and writ- 
ing and religious teaching which surpassed anything 
even suggested before. 

This was inspiration to the missionaries. Their 
efforts were redoubled. They perfected their ortho- 
graphical system, hoping it would meet the needs 
of all Micronesian dialects. They journeyed and 
preached and translated, and from worn, hand-written 
primers still taught the people to read. Then, in 
1857, Ponapean interest and American effort alike cul- 
minated in the arrival of a very small printing press. 


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1857. 175 

How beautiful it was to missionary eyes ! How 
marvelous to the embryo book- worn intelligence of 
Ponape ! Welcome to all ; but it was disappointing 
too, for its font was so hopelessly defective that only 
four small pages could be set up at a time, and this 
seemed slow movement to enthusiasm that had waited 
five years for its printing press. Joy enough was felt, 
however, in that at last it had come. For though none 
on Ponape had learned the art of printing, still the 
work was to be done, therefore with promptness they 
did it ; and while eager natives waited for their primer 
no less eager fingers set up type and folded printed 

Enthusiasm is contagious even at this distance, and 
we turn over and over again this thin pamphlet which 
meant so much in 1857. Indeed, to any lover of 
books what can be more interesting than the first 
edition of the first book that is for a nation the 
literary stepping-stone for all that shall come after? 
and here it is for Micronesia: a small, blue paper- 
covered pamphlet of sixteen pages, each page measur- 
ing four inches by five; eight leaves neatly stitched 
together by hand with coarse linen thread ; edges 
rough as modern Christmas books, but the paper 
itself thin and yellowed by time. Even the printer's 
ink is of harmonious yellow tone. So very unpreten- 
tious ! Yet this small book stirred waiting Ponapeans 

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as a new novel by George Eliot or Balzac has seldom 
■stirred the world ; and this despite contents that are 
to us sternly un romantic — the alphabet, a few simple 
phonetic spelling exercises, four pages of catechism, 
and four hymns. Among the latter are translations 
of "To-day the Saviour calls" and "There is a 
happy land." 

This, the slender volume that trembling fingers and 
throbbing hearts made ready, "The Primer" that 
wakening intelligence welcomed with such childish 
delight, the first book printed in Micronesia! Happy 
Ponape, that with tottering steps has entered the ranks 
of a literary world ! Happy missionaries that have 
materialized the intangible and made visible a lan- 
guage only audible before! 

Native enthusiasm over the first printed page 
increased with each page that followed, and this 
interest was so genuine that students multiplied until 
the whole tribe was reading. Indeed, reading on 
Ponape in 1857 as speedily became a national enthu- 
siasm as bicycling in the United States in 1894. It 
hardly seems a passing fancy, though the records show 
how contagious it was : — 

"Our people all seem anxious to learn," writes Dr. 
Gulick, "and scholars are waiting about our front 
porch most of the time. We have now about one 

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1857. 177 

*' Several natives around us read everything as fast 
as we print." 

"Went with wife to teach the Wajai and family; 
found them all well started through the teaching of 
his child. Encouraging ! Thus shall the waves spread I 
Hope on ! " 

"Goliah and his three wives have commenced to 

"We have now about one hundred and twenty 
scholars, including the wives of all our pilots." 

"Many readers are in the second book, a few in the 

Whatever the cause, certain it is that a new 
epidemic had reached Ponape. Children taught their 
parents, and husbands their wives. A chief built a 
house near Dr. Gulick to be favorably located for 
a course of advanced study ; and though just then 
the Primer was the only text book, still others would 
soon follow, for Dr. Gulick had already translated from 
the Greek into Ponapean the Gospels of Matthew and 
John, also, separately, the Beatitudes and the Lord's 

In this work of translation Joquin had helped him — 
Joquin the Portuguese, the sailor, the Ponapean by 
adoption, the man who came to Ponape to be beyond 
the sound of any praying. He had been an intense 
sufferer for years, then a reader of the Bible that 

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Dr. Golick gave him, a Christian, a friend of Grod, 

a fellow worker with the missionary, and at last, in 

dying, a soal that rose straight to heaven from Ponape ; 

and when at his funeral they sang 

« There Is a happy land 
Far, far away," 

the happiness of Joquin seemed more real to those 
who thought about it than the distance between this 
and the better land. 

In previous years Dr. Gulick had sometimes felt 
discouraged, but with Joquin's Christian death and 
the national movement towards higher things, hope 
dared to breathe. And now he writes : — 

''It does almost seem as though better days must 
be dawning — the interest is so great, though silent. 
Oh for the spirit of power and grace ! Why may not 
souls be brought into the kingdom ? I make it a topic 
of special prayer." 

Then to Hawaii he wrote : " Our work has pro- 
gressed. Our footing is surer. But Sebastopol is 
not yet taken. Our message to every Hawaiian 
church is : ' Pray for your mission and Micronesia, or 
all will fail.' " 

And prayer was answered. Audiences grew. Na- 
tives began to count the days of the week from the 
Sabbath. They asked minutely how God was to be 
worshiped. They admitted his sovereignty over them. 

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1857. 179 

" When a Malay spoke of God as the spirit of 
foreign lands,'* writes Dr. Gulick, " a native sharply 
corrected him by asking if he were not equally the 
God of Ponape." 

At the station Tulapail natives built a chapel. 
With roof of sago leaves and sides and floor of slen- 
der reeds it quite resembled Ponapean feasting 
houses. Yet there was a vital difference, for here, 
instead of feasting, darkened intelligence was vaguely 
feeling after God. Indeed, this small room, fifteen 
feet square, was the first church built by native hands 
and native contributions on Ponape. 

Of the seventy people at Tulapail, forty attended 
church. Two alone still worshiped Ponapean spirits, 
and though none had yet been baptized, many claimed 
to be " missionaries," their synonym for Christian. 
On the Sabbath they neither cooked nor fished, and 
in their groping way they tried to keep it holy. One 
man Said he had prayed in secret two years. A young 
girl, very conscientious, said she had prayed daily for 
a year. In view of these cases Dr. Gulick questioned 
the extreme conservatism of mission policy. "I 
sometimes query," he says, " how much more we are 
to require of a dark-minded heathen before admitting 
him to church privilege." 

As yet the privilege had been granted to none. But 
he realized that light was shining at last. He forgot 

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the sacrifice he had made, the life he had offered for 
other lives. And standing by the scales watching 
the weights, the balance of happiness seemed all on 
his side. 

" What occasion for gratitude !" he exclaims. "I 
am stimulated to new consecration." 

"This missionary life makes no subtraction from 
life's happiness. It is all a superaddition, a redu- 
plication, yes, more of life's felicity. It is a substan- 
tial, real, eternal joy to kindle light in darkness, to 
diffuse life amidst death, to convert a wilderness to 
gardens, to make men of brutes, angels of men. 
And this is nowhere so eminently possible as where 
light and life have never come." 

And now from this dawning light and the inspiration 
of it, Dr. Gulick showed the spirit that was in him by 
the responsibility he felt, the added sacrifice he was 
anxious to make for the good of Hawaiian churches. 
Year by year he had made careful study of Hawaiian 
adaptation to the different islands and dialects of 
Micronesia. He had also urged a closer relation 
between the Hawaiian churches and their foreign mis- 
sion, even suggesting for them a possible independence 
of the American Board. And because of the near- 
ness of the field to Hawaii and the simplicity of its 
language, he had urged that the Gilbert Islands be 
made the central point for distinctively Hawaiian 

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1857. 181 

missioDary work. And further, as a preparation for 
Hawaiian work, he proposed to go thither himself as 
a pioneer. 

"It will be more self-denying," he wrote, "than 
anything I have yet attempted, but so much the 
better ! I need to have my selfishness more cut down." 

''Both Louisa and I will be more than ready to go 
if it be thought best. My heart bounds at the thought 
of entering a larger field." ^ 

"I wish to go. I almost feel as though I must go. 
We have borne the brunt of Ponape*s battle ; the day- 
light dawns; let us now, if we may, go to darker 
regions and there lay the foundations." 

This, however, was not granted, for the need of it 
ended when, in this same brilliant year, 1857, the 
Morning Star came to Micronesia. 

1 There were 40,000 people on the Gilbert group, only 5,000 on Ponape. 

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BEFORE the Morning Star reached Ponape, church 
history in America had been made richer by its 
chapter on the love of the children that built and sent 
her. That history cannot wholly be omitted here. 

In 1855 the Micronesian Mission had made formal 
request for a mission schooner. In the same year 
also, as if moved by the same impulse, Secretaries, 
planning in Boston, decided to build a vessel of one 
hundred and fifty tons, to cost twelve thousand dol- 
lars, to be called the Morning Star. A happy thought 
suggested that the children be asked to build her. 
Shares were therefore offered at ten cents apiece ; 
and certificates of stock were neatly engraved and 
issued in very formal fashion. They testified that 
Mary or Susan or James had taken a specified num- 
ber of shares in the Morning Star. 

Youthful interest was at once secured, and Chi*istian 
children rallied to build their missionary packet. In 
America boys ran on errands and denied themselves 
luxuries ; girls hemmed pocket handkerchiefs and 
saved their dimes ; fathers and mothers were enlisted ; 


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friends were importuned ; while multitudes of children 
dreamed of their Morning Star and loved her. To 
man}^ boys and girls the height of earthly ambition 
was a hope some day to sail, in this ship of theirs, to 
distant mystic Micronesia. 

The interest spread to other lands. Turkish chil- 
dren saved half -cents from their poverty, and Chinese 
children, with slender yellow fingers, tenderly counted 
their "cash." A Sunday-school on tlie Hawaiian 
Islands sent fifty dollars, '' every penny of it earned," 
as was claimed, "by the toil of the children's hands." 
Some of that toiling was done in the fields before day- 
light, when the moon was shining and the inspiring 
morning star itself also glowing in the sky. 

Money poured into the treasury. Shares were first 
taken in August, 1855 ; and the figures of receipts are 
significant of the spreading interest. In August, 
$34.68 ; in September, $886.98 ; in October, $5,763.28 ; 
in November, $10,710. In fact, as reported at the 
time, " Coppers and three-cent pieces and half -dimes 
came in by quarts if not by gallons." More than 
enough had been raised, but still the children gave. 
Children in Canada, in India, in Africa were soon 
giving ; and a year after the keel was laid 285,454 
shares had been taken. The Morning Star had cost 
$13,000, and the remaining $15,000 were kept for 
insurance and repairs. 

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In November, 1856, four thousand people had gath- 
ered to see her launched. Over half of them were 
children who had come to see the work their pennies 
had done ; and eyes that glistened as these young 
stockholders walked about with an air of conscious 
ownership showed how pleased the children were. 
Indeed, from fore to aft, from siiining keel to slender 
mast, how the value of invested pennies revealed itself 
to them 1 To cap the climax of youthful enthusiasm, 
were four flags that floated gayly above them — two 
from each mast. One carried the name Morning Star. 
Under it was the white flag of peace. From the main- 
mast streamed the Stars and Stripes, and below it was 
the private signal — a white star on a background of 

Childish hearts breathed a sigh of content. They 
had certainly invested wisely ; and as their graceful 
craft glided from the stocks into the waters of Chelsea, 
the small shareholders shouted with delight. But 
there were tears in the eyes of the older people. 

Five months later other shareholders welcomed 
the Morning Star with equal delight to Honolulu. 
*'-^ani," they said; ^^ nani loa'* (veVy beautiful). 
And they too sped her on with the breath of prayer. 

And then, on the twenty-fourth of September, she 
was welcomed, words cannot tell how welcomed, by 
the Christians on Ponape. Perhaps no inanimate thing 

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was ever more tenderly loved by human beings than 
this Morning Star by missionaries in Micronesia. 
Before she came they loved her ; and while, for two 
months, they waited for her every day, their love for 
her steadily grew ; and when she reached them a 
broader band of sunlight followed her to Micronesia 
than had ever been seen there before. 

Dr. Gulick had gone out to meet this stranger craft 
whose flags could surely not deceive him. As he drew 
near to her side, his father waited upon her deck to 
greet Ijim. There too was his brother Orramel. Mr. 
and Mrs. Snow were also there from Kusaie, while, 
standing broad-shouldered and high among them, was 
his childhood's playfellow, Hiram Bingham. He too 
had come as a missionary to Micronesia. It was not 
long before they were all gathered in the thatched 
cottage at Shalong-, where the first and instinctive 
expression of their grateful hearts was in prayer. 
The terrible isolation was at last broken. A highway 
opened by the hands of children bound Micronesia to 
the world again. " Easy now," as Dr. Gulick says, 
" to forget all the loneliness of the past, when we 
think of the ten thousand little owners following her 
like guardian spirits with their prayers and sympathies. 
God bless the Morning Star ! God bless her owners ! " 

Mr. and Mrs. Doane had come to Micronesia in 
1855. Mr. and Mrs. Bingham had now joined the 

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mission for the Gilbert Islands. And these all, with 
the Hawaiian missionaries and Mr. and Mrs. S targes 
from Rono Kiti, met at Shalong and exchanged mutual 
help and stimulus. 

But the time had come to separate. It was October 
16, 1857. The Morning Star was about to take the 
missionaries back to their scattered fields and to their 
isolation. Besides the missionaries, she would take 
from Dr. Gulick his father and his brother who had 
come to visit him. Not only this, but, for the sake of 
her health, there would also sail away on the Morning 
Star his wife and his two children — all the world for 
him at Shalong Point. Where loneliness had reigned 
before for the family, sterner loneliness than ever now 
faced the individual. 

Five o'clock in the afternoon ; the sun burning its 
way to the horizon ; two miles outside the reef ; a sea 
that is growing rough ; Dr. Gulick can go with them 
no farther. Therefore with words that choke him and 
eyes that cannot see, he leaves the Morning Star, and 
in his frail canoe, through gathering shadows and 
deepening twilight, he returns to wait through the 
loneliness of another year for the coming again of his 
dear ones. 

Heathen darkness around him and no light in his 
home ! but God still in his heaven, and a sure con- 
viction with him still that all is wisely ordered. Thus 

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he trusts the Lord as he sits alone in the empty house 
and writes of his submission : — 

" I cannot expect to see all those dear ones again 
till this life is merged in eternal day. But we bow 
before Him who is preeminently the bright and Morn- 
ing Star." 

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r I IHE following ten months passed slowly at Sha- 
-*- long, though an old family sei-vant from Hawaii 
was installed in the kitchen. It were well indeed to 
have food and a cook to prepare it for him, yet " since 
the Morning Star left," writes Dr. GuUck, "my heart 
has been wandering over the waste of waters without 
a home." 

But he hoped the change would do his wife good 
and " make her," as he says, " the same brave, strong, 
vigorous, demurely roguish girl I so unceremoniously 
married six years ago, and with whom I have floated 
through many a honeymoon on Ponape." Then, con- 
tinuing about his wife, he tells us that ' ' she has great 
physical energy and freedom from fear;" that " she 
is one of the most heavenly minded of Christians — 
my constant insti'uctor and mentor. Since she left 
me," he adds, " I have stolen the reading of her pri- 
vate journals from early girlhood, and my soul feels 
itself poor in the Christian life beside her." 

Now, however, life moved on without her, and Dr. 
Gulick suffered in every way. 


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*'I please only myself nowadays," he writes; "I 
retire to sleep at all hours as the whim takes me, from 
seven p.m. to one or two a.m. I usually rise at six. 
I eat two meals a day and no lunch. Sometimes 
I breakfast at seven, sometimes at ten o'clock, and 
my dinner is masticated at any time from three to 
seven p.m." 

Add to this irregularity the sense of isolation which 
seldom left him, which drove him to much overdoing, 
and the depression that came later explains itself. 

'* If a man can feel thus forlorn," he wrote to his 
wife, " what must a woman suffer! what must you 
suffer ! It seems to grow more and more unbearable ! " 

Yet after all there was nothing to do but to endure, 
to keep busy and brave, and to wait. And while he 
waited a new necessity came to him. 

Enterprising leaders in Ponapean society had, even 
in 1856, begun to wear imported garments and sigh 
for imported styles. As a result Mrs. Gulick had 
joyfully cut out calico dresses and taught the women 
to sew. Now during her absence, a sudden whirl of 
desire for foreign-made garments laid hold of many 
other women, and Dr. Gulick was called on to design 
and cut out this clothing for them. He quietly tried 
to influence them toward the simple Mother Hubbard 
gown worn on Hawaii ; but to Ponapean eyes this was 
not modern enough. They expressly desired tight- 

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fitting dresses, such as Mrs. Guliek and Mrs. Sturges 
wore. There was no escape and Dr. Guliek added 
one more accomplishment to his growing list. For 
weeks now he was a lady's tailor. 

He found Mrs. Gulick*s patterns — one large, the 
other small — and by a quick mental estimate in the 
case of each applicant decided which to use. There 
could not well be any variation from the pattern, for 
Dr. Guliek was not by instinct a dressmaker. 

This fever was well advanced by May, 1858, and 
lasted four months. The following are some of the 
symptoms of its progress : — 

" I was all day yesterday making dresses. We had 
five under way at once. Strange work for a man ! " 

" Making dresses all this week. I shall be curious 
to know whether you approve the way in which they 
fit. The set of sleeves is that in which I most com- 
pletely fail." 

" Have to-day cut out three boys' sbirts, one 
woman's sack, and two petticoats, and superintended 
sewing all day. I begin to feel almost ready for the 
Morning Star. When will you come ! " 

" Within two months have made about twenty 
dresses, besides having disposed of more than as 
many more readymade dresses and slips. When the 
Morning Star comes we mean to make a grand dis- 
play of our finery, for we propose having a sort of 

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jubilee over her return, to be celebrated by all who 
have dresses ! Our piety is fully as deep, I think, 
as the mass of that in New York. I have sold all the 
calico sent for sale, disposed of all the ready made 
dresses I could find, and at last laid hold on all the 
odd pieces and remnants and choice patterns my wife 
had stored away in her drawers and chests. I don't 
know what she will think about it. I only know she 
will not scold much." 

The whole tide of this mania is so amusing that one 
almost forgets the affliction it was to Dr. Gulick. He 
wanted to study the language more scientifically, to 
continue his translating and his work on the Ponape 
vocabulary. But for months he was hindered some- 
what by this other imperative requirement. Nothing, 
however, ever really prevented mental work. Other 
duties simply drove him to press the harder ; to crowd 
sleep into very small compass ; to fill days so full that 
exercise and eating were left to chance adjustment. 
At this time, indeed, he wrote and studied and 
preached as seldom before. Letters to The Missionary 
Herald were his contribution to the life of American 
churches ; and letters to brothers and friends were the 
more potent personal influence. 

For his own sake Dr. Gulick longed for friends ; 
and the practice of intimate letter- writing in Micro- 
nesia emphasized his early tendencies, making still 

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more fixed his habit of reticence. For thereafter, 
through life, much to his regret, he was as a rule more 
reserved in personal conversation with his friends than 
in his correspondence with them. 

'*Ihave no special messages of love to write," he 
once wrote to his mother; "I only wish to tell you 
I love you. I fear your heart was pained on my 
return from the States by my coldness of exterior. 
I am sometimes troubled by this thought, yet how 
could I be otherwise? During all my American life 
I had no mother ; I had no brother or sister. This 
made me naturally reserved. I may never see you 
again on earth, but in heaven, if I ever get there, I 
shall be different. I shall be all you can desire." 

As if by some charm of his pen, distance was ban- 
ished when Dr. Gulick wrote his letters. The far-off 
friend was beside him again and they talked together, 
and this quiet talking in the library on Ponape was 
heard in many places. Through it his boyhood's 
friend, Hiram Bingham, had already come to Micro- 
nesia, and reached by it fresh life and quickened zeal 
came to the Hawaiian churches and to the Hawaiian 
Mission Children's Society that supported him. 

"My soul glows with excitement," he wrote, "as 
I think of the future day when the members of 
our society shall be scattered along on all the isles 
of Micronesia, in Malaysia, in China, in Japan, 

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among the Indians of Kamskatka and Oregon, and 
along the Spanish Main ! How pleasant will it be to 
ascend from these various fields to meet about our 
Saviour's throne ! How pleasant to feel and know 
that we have thus fulfilled our Saviour's purpose ! " 

The truth is, it had not occurred to Dr. Gulick to 
consider his mission field as bounded by the shores 
of Ponape or the islands of Micronesia ; and so, sit- 
ting in the silence of Shalong, remote and alone, he 
reached out with unflagging zeal to encourage others. 
Thus it was that through those buried years on Ponape 
he proved hardly less a missionary to America and 
Hawaii than to Micronesia itself. • 

But while he helped his friends his own need 
increased. This is best seen in a daily journal kept 
for his wife alone. Too personal for large quotation 
here, a few items must suffice to show his approaching 
nervous prostration : — 

" I have to-day had a touch of my old malady. 
I had the same weight at my heart, the same forlorn 
desire for sympathy that was the incubus of my 
youth. I had forgotten what woeful sensations they 
were. What an awful six years should I have spent 
had you not taken pity on me ! " 

'* Intellectual effort of late brings on painful aching 
in my head, which will, I fear, yet prevent my studying 
much, an affliction I must seek grace to endure." 

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" Do not feel strong." 

^' Is my relish for reading and study abating?" 

^' I would often like to escape from this condition 
of existence. It seems to me at such times that I 
should be much better adapted to usefulness if relieved 
of this physique. Still, the fact that life will, at the 
longest, soon be gone, moderates this feeling; and 
then occasionally — occasionally — the hope that I 
may, after all, accomplish somewhat for the cause 
of holiness makes my whole horizon flash with a light 
which must be akin to that irradiating heaven." 

'' I got so lonely this afternoon that I brought your 
family portrait and set it up at the head of my desk." 

*' It horrifies me to tell you that thoughts of suicide 
will every once and a while float through my brain. 
Oh, this life without you is fast using me up ! Shall 
I ever get back to where I have been in tolerable 
degree of cheerfulness?" 

*' What a whui my head and heart are in ! Your 
letters arrived this morning ! Need I say more ? " 

"I am sinking down, down, in mind and body 
here. If death would only release me, how happy !" 

" Saw the Morning Star this morning in my sleep." 

" I often wonder whether I am ever to see you 
again. Perhaps you are already in the spirit landl 
Joy for you, but inexpressible sorrow for me ! " 

" I begin to wonder if some accident has not over- 

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WAITING. 1 95 

taken the Morning Star. You may be suffering. I 
will pray for you ; it is all I can do." 

" A small speck was seen this afternoon. What 
joy should it be the Morning Star and you and our 
children ! What an abyss of sorrow should any of 
you not be on the Morning Star ! I lon^ yet dread 
to know the whole." 

It was the Morning Star. Weeks and months of 
waiting were ended now. Once more in Shalong, in 
the library where one alone had spent the months, 
wife and children were again gathered to him, and 
while Dr. Gulick poured out a thankful heart in 
prayer, his wife, still young, kneeling beside him, 
could not restrain her tears of joy. 

But the children on land again merrily danced 
about and wondered why their mother should cry when 
they were so very happy. 

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THE Morning Star came and went once a year. 
During its presence, and by means of it, the 
mission, growing slowly, met in general meeting. They 
discussed vital problems — the adaptability of Hawaiian 
missionaries to the work ; the needs of different 
islands ; the possibility of most usefulness on each ; 
the health of the missionaries ; the required appropri- 
ations for the different stations. And when the con- 
ference ended the mission kaleidoscope was often well 

In 1859, of American missionaries there were Mr. 
and Mrs. Snow still on Kusaie ; Mr. and Mrs. Stui^es 
with Mr. and Mrs. Roberts on Ponape ; Mr. and Mrs. 
Bingham on Apaiang, of the Gilbert Islands; Mr. 
and Mrs. Doane and Dr. and Mrs. Gulick on Ebon, 
of the Marshall Islands ; while Dr. and Mrs. Pierson 
were returning to America in broken health. 

There was no great dissimilarity in the experiences 
of the missionaries on the different islands. Indeed, 
the life of Dr. Gulick on Ponape may be held fairly to 
represent the life of other missionaries at that time 


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in Micronesia. Each, of necessity, was individual in 
the line of greatest personal suffering ; but, for all, 
there was physical discomfort, hard work, ignorant 
people, tired nerves, isolation. And under such pres- 
sure the more nervous failed soonest. 

It had been hoped that for Dr. Gulick life on Ebon 
might stimulate his health, worn low on Ponape. 
Then, too, Mr. and Mrs. Doane needed him medically. 

He had gone, hoping to spend yet many years in 
Micronesia. This, however, was not to be. 

The work was now well started. Progress was 
reported everywhere. The movement at Ponape with 
Dr. Gulick and Mr. Sturges had been but part of 
the whole. The regular coming of the Morning Star 
brought new life to all. It made loneliness and hard- 
ship easier to bear. It seemed a proof that love and 
strength in larger places had not forgotten the sraall- 
ness of Micronesia. 

But there came one year an astonishment, under 
which even missionary devotion caught its breath. 
The Morning Star itself brought the proposition. It 
suggested a possible sale of the Morning Star, and 
abandonment of the work in Micronesia. The reasons 
for this were the expense of the mission ; the small- 
ness of the field ; the hardships endured by its mission- 
aries ; the growing interest of the Hawaiian churches 
in their nearer mission, the Marquesas Islands, and 

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last, but most real, the pecaniary embarrassment of 
the American Board. 

Fancy might easily imagine that a sigh of relief 
would have come to tired missionaries at the prospect 
of honorable release from this hard life, or at least 
that their plea for Micronesia would not include any 
suggestion of willingness to endure more of privation 
than had already come to them ; yet not so. 

The mission had gathered in its annual meeting. 
Dr. Gulick was appointed scribe ; and as Abraham 
pleaded once for Sod6m, so he now in behalf of the 
mission pleads for Micronesia. In watching the 
patient courage of this man it is hard to keep back the 
tears. Pale now and worn ; tormented by headache ; 
older than his years, he is yet seriously offering his 
life and the life of this mission in exchange for the life 
of Micronesia. The argument covers many pages. 
At its close is the summaiy : — 

"We then turn each objection into an argument, 
and urge the continuance of our mission because it is 
not much more expensive than other missions; 
because, being small, it may be hoped it may bring 
rapid returns ; because the field is, in the main, so 
favorable to our health and comfort ; because the con- 
tinuance of the American part of our mission is so 
essential to the drawing of Hawaiian energies to 
Micronesia; because, notwithstanding the Board's 

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embarrassment, the abandonment will be so disastrous 
to the cause of missions at home, to our poor people, 
and to. our own usefulness." 

In addition this plea begs that the Morning Star be 
not withdrawn from them. But if in spite of their 
asking she should be removed, what then ? Will mis- 
sionaries sail out over the horizon with her and never 
come back again to Micronesia? Without wavering 
the mission recalls that previous isolation and yet 
answers: "Should she be removed, we beg to be 
allowed to labor as we did before she came." And 
this is so sincerely their wish that to make its granting 
more possible to home Christians they add an induce- 
ment to it. They will try, they say, to reduce ex- 
penses, to economize more, to deny themselves things 
that have seemed necessities heretofore . 

They make no suggestion of economy to those 
friends at home who, on soft cushions in dimly shaded 
churches, find it difficult sometimes to drop their 
dimes and their dollars into velvet contribution bags and 
silver plates. Neither do they tell them that in Micro- 
nesia missionaries abeady live in simplicity that would 
appall most Christian economy at home. Without a 
thought of the sarcasm that might have been breathed 
into it they make this proposition of a stricter economy 
for themselves. 

But what if even this avail not? Shall Micronesia 

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then be left to perish as Sodom ? Nay, of that one 
impossibility they have no question. And therefore, 
still writing calmly, they add : — 

"If the Board is unable to support even ourselves 
without the Morning Star, we shall ask the privilege 
of helping ourselves in what business we can, rather 
than desert Micronesia." 

Even missionary heroism had reached its limit now. 
There was nothing more to offer. Yet in faded writ- 
ing on the yellow pages there are still these other 
words : " Our hearts quiver as we ask if we, our peo- 
ple, and our cause have so lost our hold on American 
churches as to make them wish to recall us, or even to 
consent to it ? " 

Who could resist such an appeal ? Surely not Secre- 
taries in Boston nor Christian churches that, in spite 
of apparent coldness sometimes, did, after all, believe 
in their missionaries, in the Morning Star, and in their 
work in Micronesia. From that day to this the Morn- 
ing Star has visited Micronesia once a year. Not the 
same packet now as then, for one has been replaced 
by another until now the fourth in line of that first 
Morning Star is helped by steam. And missionaries 
to-day, with reasonable hope of regularity, plan for 
the coming of what is still the most welcome sight 
in Micronesia — the blessed Morning Star. 

The change to Ebon bad effected little for Dr. 

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Gulick physically. His vitality was already too thor- 
oughly sapped. At length even brave determination 
yielded. Yet the thought of return to life and the 
world again was now a dread and not a delight. 
He shrank from its intensity. 

" The idea of meeting the formalities of ' society' 
unnerves me," he writes. '' The truth is I am about 
used up. I have lost much of my relish for society, 
for conversation. It is with effort I maintain any 
tolerable degree of sociability. I am nearly .useless 
as a missionary. The prostration of my nervous 
system makes it necessary that I take a vacation ; 
and consequently our six stations on five different 
islands where five American and four Hawaiian fam- 
ilies are stationed along a line of a thousand miles 
are left without a physician." 

In October, 1860, the Morning Star returned to 
Honolulu ; and with her she brought Dr. Gulick, his 
wife, his children, and his books — the things he loved. 
Household possessions were left in Micronesia, for he 
expected to return to them. 

And now he is welcomed again to the land of his 
birth and to his father's house. God seemed very 
kind. But showing what those nine years in Micro- 
nesia had done for Dr. Gulick, the simple entry is; 
" He is so changed that no one recognizes him." 

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EVEN with its delight of friends and horseback 
riding and civilized comforts i^ain, life on 
Hawaii did not bring health to Dr. Gulick. He was 
sent to the Marquesas Islands as delegate from the 
Hawaiian charches to their mission there ; yet neither 
did this avail. Then he went to California ; and this 
touching again of home shores was the beginning* of 
a new era in his life. Throagh it he gained a 
reputation as an electric missionary speaker which 
never left him. At last he realized the ambition 
of his passionate, aspiring youth. He reached 
people and moved them by the power of his public 

The opening of this era was in San Francisco. 
Through courtesy to his missionary calling he had 
been asked to address a Sunday-school. It was a 
simple talk about Micronesia and the Morning Star, 
yet the children who listened to him awakened sud- 
denly to an actual belief in foreign missions and 
heathen people and a world which they might touch, 
though they never saw it. 


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Soon he bought a California pony and on this small 
creature visited various towns. To increase his 
Micronesian salary and to gain practice in speaking 
English again he sometimes gave public lectures. In 
one place " I gave a boy a ticket and a half dollar," 
he writes, "to go about town ringing a bell and 
shouting about the lecture. I had an audience of 
perhaps forty-five. I talked for an hour and a half 
and interested all. Expenses four dollars ; receipts 
nine dollars ; profits five dollars." 

At another time he cleared forty-five dollars. Still 
later: — 

" Spoke to the children of the academy, perhaps 
one hundred and fifty. Produced uproarious laughter 
and some cheering. I do not please myself in this 
matter," he adds. "It is hard for me to be inter- 
esting without provoking laughter. I pray for grace 
to assist me. May my sins be pardoned ! " 

A touch of pathos, for his audience had probably 
gone home and thanked the Lord for this brilliant, 
godly, human missionary who made them laugh and 
cry by turns. 

With this power of his he stirred alike Sunday- 
schools and churches, aroused interest, and secured 
large pledges of help for Micronesia. But his head 
still troubled hini. Friends argued against any return 
to foreign missionary work, and physicians declared 

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that at least Micronesia was out of the question. 
He was himself greatly perplexed. 

'*I am," he says, "at the turning point of my 
life. By one step now I can very nearly decide for 
all the future against continuing any form of foreign 
missionary life. Shall I take it? My only wish is 
to follow the indications of Providence. I care not 
what they are." 

He measured himself, indeed, when he found it 
"harder to decide not to be a missionary than to. 
decide to be one." And for this reason, no less than 
to postpone immediate decision, he took passage for 
the Eastern states — took it " with almost a shudder," 
as he says, " to think how near I came to a termina- 
tion of my missionary life by stopping here." 

With this ultimate question unanswered, therefore, 
he reached New York. It was September, 1862. 

In October he attended the meeting of the American 
Board in Springfield, Mass., and began at once what 
appears to have been his missionary conquest of the 
Eastern churches. He was encouraged when mis- 
sionary fathers whom he honored assured him "that 
he spoke much better than the mass of returned 
missionaries," and further strengthened when pastors 
sent word to each other that " Dr. Gulick would 
electrify them all." 

His addresses were largely extempore, and we can 

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only measure them now by the effect they produced 
then. Certain it is, however, that the enthusiasm 
which followed them was as a rising tide, and that 
this enthusiasm was mental and physical tonic to Dr. 
Gulick. To appreciate this we must remember that 
since he was twenty-four — and now he was thirty- 
four — he had struggled for breath in the heavy 
mental atmosphere of Micronesia, and that he was 
now abruptly introduced into intellectual ozone. 

This public speaking was continuous from October, 
1862, until August, 1868. Sometimes he traveled and 
spoke with other missionaries at church conventions. 
Sometimes he went alone to Sunday-schools and 
churches that needed him. While " everywhere," 
as he tells his wife, '^ I am the recipient of all the 
kindness and attention I could desire. It is very 
pleasant to find myself in demand publicly," he adds, 
'' improving to my mind and invigorating to my 

Audiences were at first attracted by the new topic — 
the first missionary who had come back to them from 
what had seemed another world. Soon, however, the 
man himself magnetized them. Larger numbers came 
to hear him and meetings each day were multiplied. 
First one and two, then two and three, and after that 
sometimes five and six engagements in a single day ! 

This was appalling, and yet it inspired him. He 

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grew tired but not exhausted. With Micronesian 
stagnation behind him, his hunger for people and 
for action needed much, perhaps, to satisfy it. 
Indeed, *'I dread inaction," he wrote to Mr. Treat, 
**yet occasionally I have done a little too much." 
Letters to his wife prove this : — 

^^Have spoken six times to-day, in all about three 
hours and ten minutes. Of course I am tired, but am 
gaining strength." " Spoke four times on Wednesday 
in Andover." " In Hartford spoke to a crowded house 
of adults and many children, the largest missionary 
meeting, I am told, they have had since the meeting 
of the Board here years ago." 

Sometimes there were rival efforts to secure him, as 
in February, when, as he writes, " There was quite a 
struggle between the agents of the Park Street and 
Charlestown churches regarding me for their Sabbath- 
school concerts next Sabbath. It is decided in favor 
of Park Street." 

And this, though he had already been there twice. 
As a result, " Spent Saturday night in Maiden, and 
preached there in the morning. Rode two miles to 
Melrose and preached. A carriage came for me, and 
I rode eight miles to Boston, and under the influence 
of a cracking headache spoke to a crowded vestry in 
Park Street Church with more than usual liveliness 
and effect ! Feel Mondayish to-day ! " 

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Perhaps Park Street Church felt a sense of owner- 
ship in him, for he had previously reminded them of 
the fact that thirty-five years before, in this same 
missionary-spirited chm'ch, his father had received 
instruction from the officers of the Board as a mis- 
sionary to Hawaii ; and that now, for eleven years, 
in the foreign mission- of that mission, children of 
those missionaries and converts of that mission had 
been working side by side as foreign missionaries in 

From Boston Dr. Gulick went to Maine. And here 
older folks and children too came through blinding 
snowstorms to hear him. 

In truth the children always felt as if this man 
whose prayers they had helped to answer belonged 
peculiarly to them, this missionary who had begged 
for the Morning Star and prayed for her, and waited 
for her and sailed in her, and who now told them all 
about her. What wonder that many came to hear 
him? And what wonder that, moved by his power, 
those children went home and drew out their certifi- 
cates of stock in the Morning Star, and counted them- 
selves richer than they had dreamed, and resolved that 
they too would some day be this splendid thing, a 
foreign missionary to Micronesia ! 

And so the call was constant from church to 
church, from town to town, until a rapid summary 

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in March gives us a glimpse of the pressure he was 
under : — 

"In twenty -two days I have spoken forty-three 
times in sixteen different places scattered through 
three different states. I must rest as much as I can 
in three or four days, and then start off for western 
New York, to be gone a month." 

While he kept thus busy, it is interesting to watch 
his struggle towards higher ideals in speaking. Dis- 
satisfaction came to him through a certain gift of his. 
His audiences laughed too much ! 

Laughter was well sometimes, as at that Congrega- 
tional gathering where " Dr. Stearns, of Amherst, Drs. 
Buddington, Beecher, several others, and I were," as 
he tells us, " ' the organ griuders of fun,' " and where 
'' I believe I did my share, I, the long-faced, melan- 
choly missionary ! " But the trouble was that even 
church audiences were constantly wreathed in smiles. 
In fact, the serious boy, the lonely, consecrated 
missionary to IMicronesia, suddenly surprised him- 
self no less than his friends by being a wit now in 
America ; and bis rebuke to himself was that church 
audiences were not left by him in more serious 

''Preached in Chelsea, in Mr. Plumb's pulpit. 
Was not so solemn as I ought to have been." 

" Spoke once in the morning and twice in the after- 

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CHAN0E8. 209 

noon, quite outdoing myself in producing laughter, but 
not leaving the best results." 

^^ My last address at East Concord was a wonder to 
myself in the amusement it produced. How I fail in 
coming up to what I desire ! " 

But there still remained the old power of self -con- 
quest ; and as a result we again read : — 

" I am being helped to develop the spiritual aspects 
of our mission work. The Lord guide me ! " 

" My utmost desires are gratified. All the dream- 
ings of my life are being /ealized." 

At the same time also items of approval found their 
way into daily papers : — 

"A picture talk." ''Rare descriptive power." 
"Thrilling sketches of original heathenism." "An 
eloquent and impassioned speaker." " One of the 
most eloquent men of the day." 

One 30ung man wrote to another: ''For power as 
a preacher, for plainness, point, and eloquence, I am 
not acquainted with his equal. If he wants the world 
to appreciate his talents, he had better turn his back 
on Micronesia where the returns are so slow, the 
rewards so far in the future." 

Similar suggestion came often to him. 

The great war of the rebellion still continued ; and 
Dr. Gulick's letters are constantly threaded with his 
interest in every move the armies made. Yet through 

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all this, through his flashings of humor and pathos, 
through the smiles of his audience and their tears, there 
was never any question as to the power that moved 
hiro most. It was always his devotion to the heathen 
world — to Hawaii and to Micronesia. He counted 
himself only a missionary at home on a furlough. 

In harmony with this find by special request of Dr. 
Anderson, who was about to visit Hawaii, Dr. Gulick 
made a full written statement of what the needs there 
seemed to him to be.^ This was approved in Boston, 
and speaking of him at this, time the venerable senior 
Secretary of the Board said : '' Dr. Gulick has better 
views of the working of missions than any young 
man I have ever met." 

The question of return to Micronesia had by this 
time answered itself. Dr. Gulick was not physically 
able to undertake it. Moreover, in August, 1863, he 
was invited to return to Honolulu as secretaiy of the 
recently organized Board of the Hawaiian Evangelical 

His cherished desire seemed to be increasingly ful- 
filled, for now he should work most directly for foreign 

^The points he makes are the need of efficient foreign ministers in the 
central stations ; the need of new and interesting books; the need of a 
native pastorate; the need of girls' schools, and the need of an efficient 
ecclesiastical organization. He also proposed that the Hawaiian 
churches have more responsibility; that there be but one missionary 
organization on the Islands and that that one be representative of 
the churches. 

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CHANGE S. 211 

missions from the vantage ground of his dearly loved 

'*What occasion have I to bless the Lord!" he 
exclaims. "Was a man ever more completely deliv- 
ered out of all his troubles ! " For us the exclama- 
tion is: "Ah, the blessedness of human inability to 
peer into the future ! " Yet even for him there were 
forebodings of trial in "the anxiety that increases 
upon me ; " in the ' ' shrinking from the bare anticipa- 
tion ; " in the prayer to be " saved from indiscretion," 
to be granted " wisdom to press into every duty." 

" It sometimes seems," he says, " as though I could 
not bear up under the great pressure of the position. 
My shoulders and my soul ache in advance." But the 
journey had been made. Hawaii was near to him 
again. And now writing to his wife: — 

"We are rocking in a calm when my heart wishes 
we were flying on the wings of a gale." 

" You already are expecting me and every vessel 
that comes makes you almost sick with excitement. 
But all will be lost in joy when we meet." 

Dr. Gulick reached Honolulu on the seventh of Jan- 
uary, 1864 ; and this is his prayer : " Lord, help me in 
the work before me. Keep me near thyself." 

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CHRISTIAN work on the Hawaiian Islands was in 
a state of evolution when Dr. Guliek joined it 
in 1864. The thing to be evolved was a self-support- 
ing native ministry. 

In some respects it seems cause for astonishment 
that after forty-three years of unrelenting missionary 
effort there should have been in 1863 but four Ha- 
waiian pastors of the twenty-one native churches of 
the Islands. This appears the more strange when we 
know that, in larger proportion than in the United 
States, the people could at that time read and write 
and had acquaintance with the running outline of Bible 

Two facts are, however, the easy explanation of tiie 
situation. In the first place, to missionaries who had 
taught them there had not as yet seemed sufficient 
strength of character in this childlike Hawaiian people 
to justify the placing of any large independent respon- 
sibility upon them. Veteran missionaries still re- 
mained, therefore, the pastors of the people ; and their 
parishes were often fifty and sixty miles in length. 


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In the second place, it was not the practice of the 
American Board in any of its foreign missions to press 
native converts rapidly into pastoral work.^ In fol- 
lowing out this policy, however, the mission realized 
in 1863 that a crisis was upon them and that, unless 
something immediate and radical were done, the result 
would mean sad undoing of the work into which they 
had woven their lives. If death were not so stern a 
master, so inexorable, the crisis might have been post- 
poned indefinitely ; but in point of fact the missionaries 
were already growing old, and no younger men were 
being sent to fill their places. What should be done 
to supply the need when weight of years should bear 
the older men out of sight? 

This question was met and answered at the annual 
meeting of the Evangelical Association of 1863, 
Dr. Anderson being present as Secretary from the 
American Board. 

Under the circumstances there would seem to have 
been but one answer possible, which by common eon- 
sent was promptly given. Church responsibility must 
be thrown at once upon the Hawaiians themselves, and 
this while American missionaries still lived to help them 
with their counsel. The Hawaiians were certainly 
neither so strong nor so able as their fathers in Israel, 

^ " Nor was this peculiar to the Sandwich lijlandB. At that time only 
thirty -eight of the one hundred and seventy churches connected with 
the American Board had native pastore." — Z>r. Afiderson. 

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the missionaries ; but, since the matter had practically 
redaced itself to a choice of eyils, the wisdom of the 
mission decided in favor of having the Hawaiians 
practice walking alone in church work while older 
pedestrians could still be summoned for emergencies.^ 

To accomplish this, various revolationary measures 
were adopted^ as the admission of Hawaiian pastors, 
delegates, and missionaries to full membership with the 
American missionaries in the Evangelical Association ; 
the use of the Hawaiian instead of the English lan- 
guage in its meetings ; the formation of Island Asso- 
ciations^ which ^^were to organize churches, define 
territorial limits, ordain and install pastors," etc. 

But reaching the matter most vitally perhaps was 
the resolve to urge Hawaiian young men to prepare for 
pastoral work ; ^ the missionaries practically pledging 
themselves to a division and subdivision of their fields 
as fast as Hawaiians should be found to take the 

Now all this was in some respects as a grant of 

1 Though weakness appeared among the natlTe pastors, as had been 
anticipated, still when the fathers died their places were better flUed 
than if during their lifetime Hawaiians had not already borne fall 
church responsibility. As one who has spent his life on HawaU has 
expressed it : " We should have been wrecked long since but for those 
changes. The new era brought the only possible salYation." 

* These organizations were called Associations or Presbyteries, 
according to the will of the majority in each place. The work they 
did was the same. One only was called a Presbytery ~ that on Maui. 

> With no churches to be supplied, Hawaiians had in the past neither 
sought nor in general been urged to seek full preparation for this work. 

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suffrage to the people. Heretofore they had been as 
children in church government. ^Mission fathers had 
answered all difficult problems for them; but now 
these same fathers seemed to say : '^ To-day you are 
men. To-day you begin to vote. Acquit you like 
men, and let us always help you when we can.'' 

To further share responsibility with them, a Board 
was appointed by this same epoch-making Association 
of 1863 called "The Board of the Hawaiian Evangel- 
ical Association." It comprised eighteen members, 
six of whom were Hawaiians. It was to meet twice 
a month, and here too the Hawaiian and not the 
English language was used. This Hawaiian Board 
was of necessity the heart of the General Association. 
In it were centered all church and benevolent inter- 
ests whether at home or abroad ; and through it the 
American Board did its work both on Hawaii and in 
Micronesia. Indeed, in a real sense the American 
Board, so far as this work in the Pacific was involved, 
made itself at this time auxiliary to the Hawaiian 
Board. It was eagerly helping Hawaii to walk alone 
as a mission. 

The new craft was certainly well laden. Practically 
the first of Hawaiian mission children to become a 
foreign missionary had been called to be its captain.^ 

^ WiUlam Richards, who died on reaching China, was the first one to 
go out under appuinlmeut as a missionary. 

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Enough of introduction, that, with Micronesia behind 
him, Dr. Gulick was not in danger of bringing added 
burdens to Hawaiian foreign missionaries by experi- 
mental application of homemade theories. He was 
not to try the strange experiment of unfastening 
heathen chains with hands which had not been quite 
brave enough to touch the heathen themselves. A 
Hawaiian ; a missionary ; a man who thought problems 
through and, regardless of self, tried to do his part in 
answering them, — this was Dr. Gulick who had come . 
back to the help of Hawaii. 

Yet the very fact of his Hawaiian birth and intimacy 
with mission questions had served to heighten his 
appreciation of the difficulties before him. He knew 
that even consecrated humanity is, after all, human, 
and that it would be a hard thing for veteran leaders 
in large parishes to resign the work of their lives to 
the hands of natives who were, at best, inferior to 
themselves in strength of character, in mental disci- 
pline, in experience ; and that when it came to the 
actual point of parish division godly men might hesi- 
tate and seriously question whether the interests of 
Zion did not demand the continued resting of their 
hands upon the ark. But Dr. Gulick had come to 
Hawaii with all this in view. 

A special meeting of the Board was held on the 
twelfth of February, 1864, to welcome him to his 

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" Pleasant, satisfactory," he says, *'my initiation. 
The Lord be praised ! The Lord guide and direct ! " 

Then the practical work of organization began; 
and at once he found himself '^ swimming in deep 
waters without a precedent" to guide him. "Yet 
much seems to be expected of me," he writes. In 
truth, what the Board was to the association, that was 
its executive officer to the Board — its heart and soul. 
It was for him to start movements which should carry 
out its large plans ; and, once started 9 he was to see 
that these plans were executed. Besides this there were 
the multiplied routine duties which fell to him as both 
Home and Foreign Secretary — annual reports, statis- 
tical tables, and constant communication with Secre- 
taries in Boston, with all parts of Hawaii, and with 
each missionary in Marquesas and the Micronesian 

Such were the requirements of his office, and how 
can one even outline the effort he made to fulfill them 
all ! For months at first he was traveling and counsel- 
ing with the missionaries and organizing Island Asso- 
ciations aud meeting the natives ; then there were 
native pastors to be ordained, large parishes to be 
made smaller, churches to be organized, and through 
it all the hearty cooperation of most of those for 
whom he acted. 

But as in all radical movements, so in this : there 

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was the conservatiye balance wheel in constant revolu- 
tion. Thus it appears, for he tells us that ^^ the 
radical independence of Congregationalism stands 
among us with swords drawn ready to slash and 
shout to New England sectarianism for help against 
the iniquitous ecclesiastical system into which the 
Hawaiian churches fell in 1863." 

In face of its own previous action this same con- 
servative wheel revolved in some dismay over the 
question of parish division. Indeed, it appears as a 
curious fact that a certain few of the older mission- 
aries seem to have believed strenuously in the prin- 
ciple of a native pastorate for the parish of their 
neighbor, while as strenuously resisting the applica- 
tion of the same principle to their own fields. 

"For me to enter these fields in my capacity of 
Home Secretary," writes Dr. Gulick, '' would be the 
signal for the exercise of the severest of broomsticks. 
Between all these elements therefore,^* he adds, " I 
have to step carefully." For hinj, however, careful 
stepping did not mean the ceasing to walk altogether. 
On the contrary, he took such rapid steps that by the 
last of 1864 he had been "received with kindness 
by all," was " greatly encouraged," and was able to 
report : — 

" The associations of the island of Hawaii have 
arranged for twenty-four evangelical church organiza- 

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tions, nineteen of them to be under native ministers. 
Eight of these nineteen are already organized with 
pastors, while four others are for the present year 
supplied with licensed pastors." 

However important his own share in this work, 
Dr. Gulick nevertheless claimed little for himself. 
"For years," he tells us, "the fathers of Hawaii 
have been preparing the way for this very step ; we 
are now but seeing the fruit." 

Still we to-day realize, as his co-workers did, that 
results so suddenly in advance of all anticipation 
signify the presence of one who was a genius in 
organizing forces and marshaling men. In point of 
fact, this gift as a leader seems to have been increas- 
ingly through life the possession of Dr. Gulick; so 
much so that in speaking of him twenty years later an 
aged missionary said : '* Yes ; we all worked together 
with him. No, not together; he was a king among 

As for the Hawaiians themselves, they were devot- 
edly his friends, both because of frequent tours 
among them and even more perhaps through the 
growing interest of his newspaper. The Euokoa, or 
Independent — so independent sometimes that it soon 
brought much trial with it! Of this Kuokoa Dr. 
Gulick became proprietor and editor ^ on the first of 

1 For a season the Bey. H. H. Parker was a feUow editor with him. 

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January, 1865, and the undertaking proved what he 
had anticipated — "a post of great and incessant 
labor." He assumed it "because it is in the line of 
my official duties and because it will greatly increase 
my influence and contact with the natives." 

Nor had he overestimated either the toil involved 
in editing it or the influence which this paper would 
exert. It was for the Hawaiians both a missionary 
and a literary magazine, no less than a religious news- 
paper and political bulletin ; and this because there 
was, when it first appeared, no other weekly newspaper 
printed in the native language. In it, therefore, all 
varieties of interest were centered. Here were asso- 
ciation reports ; accounts of installations ; news from 
foreign missions, from America and the world ; dis- 
cussion of vital home questions ; advice, warning, 
and encouragement. 

Through it all pastors no less than other people 
recognized one avowed high purpose — the good of 
Hawaii. When, therefore, The Kuokoa came to them 
once a week they welcomed it as a personal friend ; 
and when the editor himself took them by the hand 
and said " Aloha^*' ^ their love for him was very real. 

They often proved this by their hospitality, for no 
hotels waited near the scattered churches when he 
toured among them. The home of the missionary 

^ " Love to you." 

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,,^i:^.c^r7^i-^ ^-^^^ 

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was often far away, but Kauka Kulika ^ was always 
welcomed by the native pastor. When he came, sun- 
browned children with coal-black eyes scampered off 
to tell their friends that Kauka Kulika had come, 
while the quiet hostess spread her simple meal of 
poi and fish with much apology. But poi and fish 
were feast enough for Hawaiian of any shade. There- 
fore before it there was the blessing and after it the 
sermon — he always preached when he visited the 
churches, and the people always came to hear him. 
After the sermon there was added cheer for Dr. 
Gulick in the musical ^^ AloTia, Aloha^ Aloha'* of this 
warm-hearted people. 

1 Their pronunciation for Dr. Gulidc. 

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INTENSITY of life was vastly increased after 
1864 by the projection of active politics into 
the life of Hawaii. History tells us that in 1855, at 
the age of twenty-one, Eamehameha lY became king 
of the islands ; that as a man he was highly educated, 
brilliant, courteous, and as a king bent on carrying 
into effect the noble constitution given to his people 
by Kamehameha IH. It also tells us that progress 
was made while he lived ; that he died in 1863 ; that 
many hopes were buried with him ; and that his elder 
brother Lot succeeded him as Kamehameha V. 

Now the contrasting portraits of these two kings 
are indicative of their real character, for while the 
younger brother has a quiet, thoughtful face and eyes 
that look directly into ours, the elder brother reminds 
us of a Lot unwaveringly determined to abide in 
Sodom — a gross neck and heavy features, full cheeks, 
thick lips, unkindly expression, and eyes which, 
though looking down, seem to say : " Here I am and 
you cannot move me." 

On the whole, this represents him well, for he 


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proved to be a strong, resolute, unscrupulous, unyield- 
ing man, who, by the power of his single personality, 
was soon able to overthrow the constitution of 1852 
and replace it with another. 

Differing from his brother, he believed that the 
people had too many rights and the king too few. 
He objected to the liberal constitution of Kame- 
hameha III and resolved to take no oath to maintain 
it until he had changed it. By proclamation, there- 
fore, on the seventh of May, 1864, he called upon 
the people for an election of delegates who should 
meet in Honolulu for the revision and amendment of 
the constitution. 

At once there was surprise and indignation every- 
where. This looked like " a step toward absolutism ; " 
yet the king made a tour of the islands in its 
advocacy, and the election was ordered for the 
thirteenth of June. 

As it happened, the annual meeting of the Evan- 
gelical Association, which drew to Honolulu the 
strongest men from the entire group, was to open 
on the first of June. Now because in so small a 
place no department of life could stand in isola- 
tion, because, in fact, religious life and political life 
throbbed with their hearts too close to each other to 
be easily separated, a significant step was promptly 
taken by the Hawaiian Board. By special action it 

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postponed the opening of the Evangelical Association 
from the first to the twenty-seventh of Jaoe, and 
this for the sake of leaving at their posts men who 
should instruct the people in the dangers involved 
and guide them in the choice of men. 

It was a wise move. Satisfactory men were elected. 
At twelve o'clock, July 7, 1864, the constitutional 
convention was opened by the king ; it met in the 
great historic Kawaiahao church. Sixteen nobles and 
twenty-seven delegates were there, and among them 
six sons of missionaries. The whole scene was so 
novel in the annals of Hawaii that history was 
written that day with an exclamation point. In a 
building erected by the missionary ; guided by intel- 
ligence nurtured by the missionary; associated as 
equals with the sons of the missionary ; summoned 
by a king who owed all his personal education to a 
missionary, — the Hawaiian people had been called 
to yield to this king some of the freedom and strength 
that had come to them through the missionary ! 

The situation itself is explained by the fact that 
righteousness had not entered the heart of Kame- 
hameha V and that men from foreign lands who 
were anti-missionary, anti-Christian, and surprisingly 
pro-self were the men of whom he sought counsel. 

Yet, even among these men, one acknowledged at the 
time that ^^ the American missionary had brought all 

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the rights the natives ever had." Appreciating this 
for themselves the people were not ready voluntarily 
to relinquish these rights ; and among others they 
had sent the sons of their missionaries to wage the 
constitutional battle for them. 

After a week of debate nobles and representatives 
were seated together as a single voting body, " a 
great loss for the opposition," said Dr. Gulick, 
'* since in the presence of hereditary chiefs scarce 
a native can assert anything contrary to their known 
or supposed wish or thought." Another struggle 
resulted in the vote that the convention had the right 
to make a new constitution. 

In August, nobles and representatives were still in 
session. Revision was being attempted ; and the intelli- 
gence of the Islands was almost breathless as it waited 
for results. The king's first desire was to limit suf- 
frage by a property qualification. He assured the 
people that in a monarchy there simply could not be 
universal suffrage. Native delegates were greatly 

"More than one," says Dr. Gulick, ''have this 
week told his majesty that instead of kindness he 
is treating his people with unkindness. An English- 
man said the other day that ' the American mission- 
aries have certainly taught the natives to think, but 
that they have learned to think a little too much ! * 

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*' Yesterday the matter came to a vote," he eon- 
tinaes, ^' and nearly two thirds of the delegation, most 
of them natives, in the very face of royalty, calmly 
stood in the negative while the king with fiery looks 
counted them one by one. It gives one's blood a new 
impulse ! Immediately the king, instead of having 
the question of adjournment put as usual, merely dis- 
missed them, bidding them come together on the 13th." 

They came, and for five hours again the question 
was discussed. Again those delegates, in behalf of 
the very slender purses of their constituents, voted 
against it, but the king did not yield ; a man w^ith that 
sort of face never does. His action, however, was 
simple enough ; he abrogated the constitution of 1852, 
prorogued the convention of 1864, and told the nation 
that in a few days he would proclaim a new constitu- 
tion ! With a thought perhaps of protest from the 
people, it is recorded that "The police force was at 
once increased by eighteen men and one man 
went about with a pistol in his pocket ! " A tempest 
in a teapot, perhaps, but none the less truly a tempest 
for Hawaii. 

On the twentieth of August the new constitution 
was published. Various natives refused to cheer for 
it, saying that " it was not for them, but for the 
chiefs and the foreigners." Dr. Gulick himself felt 
that " the dial of constitutional liberty has gone back." 


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Among other changes, this constitution provided 
for '' the imprisonment of any editor or public speaker 
expressing himself improperly against a law under 
debate in the House." '' Thus is our press muzzled," 
wrote Dr. Gulick, " and public opinion parried." 
How little he anticipated the latter personal pressure 
of this measure upon himself ! 

Thus did the will of one man overturn the constitu- 
tion of a nation, and the act had far-reaching results. 
That was indeed a solemn day for Hawaii : for as a 
natural outcome of the instability introduced by Kame- 
hameha V, there arose at last so strong a desire for 
righteous legislation and a constitution beyond the reach 
of any one man that in 1893 Hawaii deposed her queen, 
established a provisional government, and seriously 
offered herself to the United States for annexation. 

In November, 1864, the immediate excitement of 
Hawaiian politics was swept aside for a moment by 
the thrilling news that Abraham Lincoln had been 
reelected President of the United States. Indeed, 
such enthusiasm and such cheering followed it on 
Hawaii that " for days afterward some of our best citi- 
zens were hoarse." In multiplied numbers the Stars 
and Stripes floated at once over Honolulu and its 
harbor, while Americans walked the streets with 
radiant faces, and Hawaiians as they met each other 
said : " We feel like Americans to-day." 

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Bat all this was only as sunlight piercing a cloud. 

The cloud remained for Hawaii and the new era 
which had now been fairly introduced by Kameha- 
meha V. 

At this distance, and to us as to others, the political 
unrest of those years from 1864 to 1870 is indeed 
blended now as a picturesque cloud. It overhangs 
the Islands of Hawaii and serves to heighten the 
effect of light and shadow resting upon them. And 
wherefore analyze it to-day ? It is enough at this dis- 
tance to say it was a cloud, that good men shivered 
under it, that righteousness seemed to stagger, that 
swayed by the will of royalty, as in other lands, 
humanity both white and brown did those things that 
were not expected of them. Through it all, however, 
good men were unitedly praying for the welfare of 
Hawaii, and Hawaiians were being educated politically. 

''Now I see how it is," said a shrewd anti-mission- 
ary observer; "the churches are governed by the 
membership in a way that is educating the people in 
democratic principles, and from the church model they 
have learned how to conduct political affairs." 

Those who watched passing events through these 
years perceived two currents of influence moving 
across the Hawaiian Islands. On the one hand, in 
larger numbers than ever before, young men were 
entering the ministry and turning to the help of their 

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own people ; noble missionaries were trying to fit their 
large mantles to narrower shoulders ; churches were 
maltiplying, church membership increasing, and, in 
proportion to the population, benevolent contributions 
were growing larger every year. This was the crystal 
half of that slow-moving mer de glace. 

The other half was as unsightly as the rock-covered 
surface of the Tal6fre. It had its rise in the corrup- 
tion that reigned in high places. Intemperance and 
immorality were making headlong progress. Super- 
stition was revived and its accompanying heathen 
rites. With a king who towered among his people as 
a promoter of wrongdoing, it is not strange that for 
a season spiritual blight rested upon them. Where 
Kaahumanu and Kapiolani had once stood and pointed 
the people heavenward, Kamehameha V and his friends 
now stood and beckoned them downward. 

In view of the situation two courses were advocated 
by those who loved Hawaii. One urged " conciliatory 
measures," an effort to secure the good of the nation 
without much show of hostility to the government ; an 
attempt to guide without alienating royal favor lest 
displeasure bring the greater evil. Certain members 
of the community even thought "it would be better 
to follow our Saviour's example, and the example 
of Paul by keeping aloof from political matters 

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The other party, in the front ranks of which Dr. 
Gulick had now cast himself, claimed that ^^ Christ 
came not at all times to bring peace, but sometimes 
the sword,*' and that ^Hhis constant effort to abate strife 
for the right often works incalculable mischief." It 
cried : " Our ' lost cause ' will yet be won again, and 
by a force more potent than powder and ball. Stern, 
steady demand for right, educating the people and 
daunting wicked rulers are the only means we know." 
Stem, steady demand was therefore made every week, 
and its voice to the people was The Kuokoa.^ 

During 1865 The Auokoa had been started as a 
purely governmental paper. It represented anti- 
missionary sentiments. 

Perhaps it would hardly have been in the natural 
order of things if The Kuokoa, with its avowed senti- 
ments, had wholly escaped the wrath of the govern- 
mental party. In point of fact it did not escape. 

It was May, 1866. The Legislature was in session 

^ One of the most vital qaestions at this time was concerning the 
common schools of the country. Even so early as June, 1866, a start- 
ling series of charges against " those who have direction of the schools," 
the government, was made to the Evangelical Association by its 
committee on schools. It was asserted that they had appointed as school 
superintendent with exclusive power over school-teachers, " a man 
who for a series of years had shown hostility to the Americans " ; that 
** the wishes of parents are utterly disregarded " in the appointment of 
teachers; that "religious influences" are to be excluded from the 
schools and the*' Bible disallowed" ; that Catholic teachers are placed 
over Protestant schools, *' men of immoral character appointed to the 
office of teacher and trustee," and " schoolhouscs sold in districts 
where there are enough children to sustain a school." 

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in Honolulu ; and in the progress of its business it 
was moved * ' that the Assembly order the sergeant-at- 
arms to bring the person of L. H. Gulick before the 
House to answer for the publication of a certain arti- 
cle in The Kuokoa of May 12, in which thirteen mem- 
bers of the House by name are called parasites of the 
Ministers because they voted against the bill to reduce 
the horse tax from one dollar to fifty cents, stating 
that these men had no regard for the wishes of the 

One member was promptly on his feet in favor of 
the resolution " because The Kuokoa was unanimously 
respected," he said ''and because the people had 
great confidence in its editor, Dr. Gulick. The 
people believed The Kuokoa," he added, " and did not 
believe the government organ. The Auokoa. The 
Kuokoa's influence was so great that it very nearly 
prevented elections from being held in certain districts, 
and therefore this House ought to take notice of the 
insult." Yet another member did not like to be called 
a parasite because, though it was false, " the natives 
in the outer districts would point at him and say : 
' There is the member from Honolulu who is hoopili- 
meaai ^ to the Ministers.* " 

Other members, however, protested that '' the 
House should be above sensitiveness for such 

1 Parasite. 

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attacks " ; that, if Dr. Gulick were brought before 
them, ''he would have the opportunity of saying he 
was a victim on the altar of the people." 

The motion, nevertheless, was carried, and a warrant 
was signed and issued " for the production of Dr. 
Gulick before the House at eleven a.m. to-morrow, or 
as soon thereafter as possible." 

Though it is thirty years since The Kuokoa printed 
the " communication " which so disturbed the House 
in 1864, yet its closing words still burn with the fire 
with which they were written : — 

"There, you people of Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, 
Lanai, Oahu, and Kauai, you can see the faithlessness 
of your chosen representatives who come here and join 
hands to that side, leaving you in the hindermost 
canoe ! Look out for the year 1868 ! It is yours to 
watch the right ! " 

Ever its friend. The Commercial Advertiser, now 
stanchly defended The Kuokoa. It examined Article 
Fifty-two of the Constitution,^ and it maintained that 
there had been no violation of that article ; that '' the 

^Article Fifiy-ttDo.—ThQ Legislative Assembly shall have author* 
ity to punish by imprisonment not exceeding thirty days, every person 
not a member who shall be guilty of disrespect to the Assembly, by 
any disorderly or contemptuous behavior in its presence; or who, 
during the time of its sitting, shall publish any false report of its pro- 
ceedings, or insulting comments upon the same : or who shall threaten 
harm to the body or estate of any of its members for anything said or 
done in the Assembly, In his way going or returning; or who shaU 
rescue any person arrested by order of the Assembly. 

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representatiyes are making themselves ridicaloas to 
the whole people " ; that " The Kuokoa might say that 
the members are a pack of fools and ignoramuses with- 
out violAtlng the letter or the spirit of the article." 

''When, therefore," it continued, "Minister 

says ' the public have a right to comment on the laws, 
but not on the men who make the laws,' he sets up an 
issue for which he has no authority to support him. He 
attempts to erect a bulwark, and getting behind that 
structure shouts : ' There is no power between us and 
Grod ! ' There is a power between him and Grod, and 
he will live to witness it." 

These were stern words ; but the warrant had been 
issued, and on the ei^teenth of May "the return 
of the sergeant-at-arms was read, stating that the 
body of L. H. Gulick was in readiness to be brought 
before the House." 

What a day that was for the family of children 
in the large white house under the algaroba trees ! 
They only knew that their father had been arrested, 
and they waited through the hours with a shivering 
expectancy that something far more dreadful yet 
was sure to happen. Perhaps they prayed about it, 
though as yet they were not very pious children. No 
question, however, as to the praying of their mother ; 
not prayer for deliverance alone, but prayer that 
wisdom might be given to her husband. 

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He was brought before the Assembly and replied 
laconically to the questions of the Vice-President. 

"Are you editor and publisher of the newspaper 
Kuokoa, published in Honolulu?" 

*' I am." 

" Do you hold yourself responsible for articles 
published in it?" 


Then he was remanded and the members discussed 
his case. There was much excitement. 

"I was the member," said one, "who moved that 
this person be brought before this House, and I now 
move that he be punished according to Article Fifty- 
two of the Constitution." 

Two or three others were on their feet at once. 
One asked for the law that could punish a man for 
saying certain representatives were parasites. He 
moved that the resolution be tabled and Dr. Gulick 
set free. Others supported this. Yet another moved 
that the manuscript of the article be brought into 
the House. Still another said: " Having in mind the 
dignity of this people, I demand that this person 
be punished, else he may go away and do worse." 
Another desired authority first, precedent. '' I don't 
think a person from Hawaii to Niihau," he said, 
" was ever punished for calling another hoopilimeaai.** 

In the midst of these differing expressions of 

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opinion a line was brought in from Dr. Gnlick 
himself : — 

To His Highness, M. Kekuanaoa, President of the 
Legislative Assembly. 
Sir, — Before the Assembly pass to any resolution 
of condemnation in my case, allow me to crave the 
common right of a criminal of speaking in my own 
defense. Yours respectfully, 

L. H;. Gulick. 

This was not allowed, however, and after further 
discussion a motion was made and seconded, amended, 
amended again, and passed, that — 

"The Rev. L. H. Gulick be brought again before 
the bar and be admonished that this House do consider 
the article a contempt to this Assembly, and with 
this intimation to him we do dismiss the further 
consideration of his case." 

Promptly, therefore, he was "brought again," and 
the President said : — 

" I do hereby inform you that you have committed 
a contempt of this Assembly, and would say. Do so no 
more ; and with this say to you. Go from this House." 

So he weut quietly away; but the old flash was 
in his eye and his love for Hawaii had grown stronger 
and not weaker through this trial for her. " I feel 
so indifferent as to anything but duty," he wrote, 
" that I think it alone gives me vantage ground." 

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K£ENLY sensitive as he was to adverse criticism, 
Dr. Gulick remained nevertheless nninflaenoed 
by it. His hand still gaided The Euokoa. Though 
the friction of it often bruised him, still he neither 
flinched nor left half undone what duty seemed to him 
to require. And this because, as he said, " We have 
fallen on times when there is need of manhood, when 
cringing and weakness only defeat our cause." 

'* To one thing I am pledged," he adds, " and that 
is not to err on the side of extreme lukewarmness 
to the interests of the Hawaiian race. I know the 
danger, and I propose being careful ; but I am a man, 
and I am an American, and I desire that America's 
influence should be more directly felt for the good of 
the monarchy and for the people's sake and for the 
cause of evangelical religion." 

Thus was he an American ; but he was so joined to 
both countries that it is somewhat difficult to tell 
which was dearer to him. In truth, he belonged to 
both, for on anotlier page he says: ''We beg you 
to remember that we younger men are not foreign 


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missionaries, but to all practical purposes native 
Hawaiians, only claiming for our darker-skinned 
fellow citizens what has been ruthlessly filched from 
them by the help of foreign talent and foreign 

Because of this double allegiance Dr. Gulick 
welcomed the annexation discussions of 1868. He 
saw at once the faintly outlined answer to various 
Hawaiian problems and dared thus to prophesy : — 

" The time will come when we shall be ready for 
absorption by the Great Republic if they desire it. 
At present we are not ready, but these discussions are 
preparing the way." And further : " Be assured that 
the time will come when manhood, suffrage, and a 
truly representative government will be secured for 

In doing what he could to hasten this time. Dr. 
Gulick walked constantly and swiftly under a very 
heavy load. For, in addition to his duties as CJorre- 
sponding Secretary and his personal charge of the 
whole publication department of the mission,^ he 
carried for years " the entire editorship and pecuniary 
responsibility of the newspaper Kuokoa. I do not 
at all regret having thus far done the work," he 
writes, ''but it is too much for one man." 

^ " Which inchides the supervision of the press and the charge of the 
distribution and sale of the publications, and the keeping of all the 
book and newspaper aoconnts with our ministry throughout the group." 

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This we realize. Yet there was still the added 
weight of frequent pulpit supply for the unusually 
intelligent foreign audience of Fourth Street Church ; 
Fourth of July and other orations for the same 
foreign audience, and once that thrilling memorial 
address, still remembered, when Hawaii no less than 
America mourned the tragic death of Abraham 

Surely those were busy years; but the upper and 
nether millstones of political life and church life never 
spared him ; and we are not surprised that his ^^ spirits 
sometimes sank," that he ^' longs sometimes to be out 
of these complications, to go to Micronesia or Mar- 
quesas.** But this was only the discouragement of a 

Encouragement came in the line of immediate 
church work. Annual reports mark the steps of its 
progress ; and a note with a touch of humor in it 
shows the large cooperation of those who were work- 
ing together for Hawaii : — 

'' The native ministry is stepping on even faster 
than we radicals had expected, and our conservative 
fathers are pushing the wheels where even we shrink. 
The world moves somewhat, even if a little one- 
sidedly. We will rejoice." 

No question as to cause for rejoicing, for the sum- 
marized results of this cooperation showed in 1869 

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fifty-six organized churches, thirty-six ordained Hawai- 
ian pastors and eight licentiates; thirteen Hawaiian 
foreign missionaries ; a church membership of twelve 
thousand four hundred and ninety-seven, and benevo- 
lent contributions of $29,386 for that year alone. ^ 

Where, in 1863, but four churches had Hawaiian 
pastors, the case was now reversed. In 1869 " but 
four missionaries of the American Board had pastoral 
charge of the Hawaiian Islands — all on the island of 

As part of the work of the Hawaiian Board, larger 
provision had been desired for the education of 
Hawaiian girls. Miss Ogden still carried on her 
school at Makiki. In 1865 Mr. and Mrs. Orramel 
Gulick moved to Waialua their girls* school started 
on Hawaii. This grew rapidly. But Honolulu was 

1 This seems small as compared to the larger numbers of earlier 
years. But the fact should be borne in mind that the race itself was 
passing rapidly away. A Hawaiian population estimated by the first 
missionaries to be 130,000 had dwindled to 84»000 in 1860. The excess of 
deaths over births du: ing the same years 2,890. Through 1867, 1868, and 
1869 the average annual decrease was 1,154. Indeed, the population of 
the Islands diminished so rapidly that by 1872 it numbered but 56300. 
Concerning this fact Dr. Gulick wrote at the time :— 

** But for the conserving effects of the gospel during the last half 
century, there would have been now scarce a Hawaiian left to tell the 
story of the extinction of the race through foreign vices grafted upon 
native depravity. That the race still continues to decrease is no won- 
der, but that it is in existence to-day, with any manifestations of true 
Christianity, is one of the modern miracles of grace. That there is so 
much vice and immorality should astonish no one, but that there is any 
virtue, any piety, any civilization should cause us to shout over the 
triumphs of redeeming mercy." 

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in need. Dr. Galick was already overworked, and his 
wife was not very strong. She had five young 
children of her own and had welcomed as her own 
the children sent to Honolulu by her '^ missionary 
sisters" in Micronesia, yet Mrs. Guliek felt that her 
opportunity had come. No one else could begin the 
school. She had been ^^ longing for more missionary 
work to do, praying for open doors." On the sixth 
of March, 1865, we find the sequel to her prayer : — 

''Opened school this morning with eight scholars. 
Our cook is sick, Mrs. B. still in bed, and our friends 
from Micronesia are here. We are twenty-one in the 

That day school of eight was Kawaiahao Seminary 
in its infancy. Through succeeding months numbers 
increased, boarders were accepted, neighbors helped 
Mrs. Guliek in the teaching, until at last the need 
of permanent help was imperative. Miss Lydia 
Bingham was then called to the work and reached it 
in 1867. 

In the meantime, however, Kawaiahao Seminary 
remained in every sense a family school, which 
studied and played and created much confusion and 
needed much employment ; all of it to be devised and 
the machinery of it to be kept in motion by the one 
busy brain of the mother of them all — the precious, 
prayerful woman whose life was so full of active 

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kindnesses to others that her children never heard her 
gossip or say unkind things about her neighbors. 

There were so many children in this family school, 
and they did things so in flocks, that names are seldom 
mentioned. We simply know from Mrs. Gulick's 
journal that " most of our sixteen children have had 
colds," that "on Sunday six were sick," that "on 
Saturday I went with nine children to the woods " ; 
that on another Saturday ^ ^ we had carriages to take 
nineteen of us and horses for three more" ; that " five 
tode while fifteen walked to church"; that "we all 
went out to Manoa to bathe." 

Instead of groaning in spirit under the turmoil of 
such a life Mrs. Gulick is exultant. " Oh, how won- 
derful," she exclaims, " is the goodness of God and 
his minute care over his children ! " 

Though the central abiding place of this family was 
the home in Honolulu where the Kawaiahao Seminary 
still stands, yet in charming Manoa valley there was 
a small painted cottage bought with money earned 
by Mrs. Gulick in teaching before she was married. 
Hither they hied for their holidays and their vacation 
times. Such a paradise it seemed to them all ! Sweet 
jasmine and roses, and vines in profusion, and gnava 
trees and pasture lands, and a short exciting cut across 
lots over the stone walls . to that spot of all enchant- 
ment — their bathing place in the beautiful stream ! 

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Hertf too Dr. Gnlick often went with them, and 
there is a tradition that he lay awake one night plan- 
ning the location of garden spots for his own and the 
other children to cultivate. More likely, liowever, he 
lay awake under his own increasing weariness and 
perplexity. Gradually he had realized that there were 
those who felt that, as Secretary of the Hawaiian 
Board, he shoald be less pronounced in his politics, 
less radical in his demands, more conservative, more 
silent ; that, with skirts drawn judiciously aside from 
political touch and with quiet upturned face and finger 
pointing heavenward, he should make no very audible 
protest, though his countrymen were being charmed 
and chained and dragged past him to their destruc- 
tion ; that, in other words, he should attend to what 
seemed to them more legitimately the affairs of the 
heavenly kingdom, leaving earthly politics to those not 
so officially situated. 

But it is certain that Dr. Gulick had no moment of 
doubt as to his own duty in the matter. " I make in 
my mind a very important distinction," he says, 
'' between the proper neutral political position of a 
foreign missionary and one like myself to the ' manor 
born.' I should as soon think of changing my course 
as of being silent regarding theft or murder.** 

No one ever questioned Dr. Gulick*s loyalty to 
Hawaii, his courage or bis ability. Those who differed 

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from him, the conservatives and a few of the older 
missionaries, did certainly assert that he was "too 
radical"; but they also testified to his "executive 
ability," to his "faithfulness" and "effectiveness as 
a worker." 

Since his own conviction remained unchanged, how- 
ever, and since there also existed this other expressed 
conviction as to the political duties of a Secretary, 
Dr. Gulick saw with increasing distinctness that his 
next great step must accomplish for him a withdrawal 
from his position as Secretary of the Hawaiian Board : 
for he could not consent to be a divisive element in it. 
The thought dawned slowly but fully upon him. 

" I am willing to leave my office and my country for 
my country's good and to disembarrass the cause of 
Christ," he wrote, "but I cannot recede from my 
position of antagonism to what I consider wrong." 

"Thanks for your kindly exhortation to keep up a 
'brave heart.' It is just what I intend to do, the 
Lord helping me, even if necessary to the point of 
standing one side as soon as it shall appear that my 
portion of the work is done ; and it requires more 
nerve, I fancy, to do this than to cling to office under 
the impression that my services in this particular sphere 
are indispensable to the Lord ! " 

The decision was seriously made, and on the twenty- 
seventh of January, 1870, by letter to the Hawaiian 

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Board, Dr. Gnlick aaked for three months' leave of 
absence and declined reelection as its Secretary. 

Of necessity there was protest. Even those who 
differed from him in politics were anxious to retain 
his help for mission work. They wrote to the Secre- 
taries in Boston about it and said : — 

^* There is probably not one of the missionaries who 
wiU not cordially and earnestly sustain Dr. Gnlick, 
nor one who has not done so in his proper work as a 
Secretary of the Mission Board. He has had and still 
has the cooperation of his brethren in his missionary 
labors in an unusual degree. He is a good and diligent 
officer, prompt in business and devoted to the cause. 
I hope you may persuade Dr. Gulick and his brother ^ 
to listen to the voice of their brethren in continuing 
their missionary work, even though they may not be 
sustained in political matters or any other outside of 
what some of us esteem to be their proper sphere 
of labor." 

Then too there were tender words of appreciation 
from his friends. 

" Your years of faithful service here," one of them 
wrote, " have been productive of greater and far more 
important results than you certainly can estimate — or 
I either. Our entire work has been modified by the 
agency to which, under God, you have been called — 

1 Rev. O. H. Gulick was leaving Hawaii at the same time. 

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savingly modified ; nor will the impress you have been 
privileged to put upon it ever be lost." 

" Personally, dear brother," he continues, " I should 
not like to trust myself to tell you how these years 
of earnest toil and precious companionship with you 
in the Master's work bere loom up in the history of 
my life, as above all other portions thereof — years of 
warm-hearted, constant, eflFective work under God for 
this poor people. And now all around me, go where 
I may, my thoughts find you, and my heart as well 
as my mind perceives your tracks ineffaceable on all 
departments of our work. God honored you much, 
though in a comparatively obscure sphere, to do a great 
service for him." 

In spite of protest and appreciation, however, the 
path of duty seemed very clear to Dr. Gulick, and his 
work for Hawaii ended in February, 1870. 

For a minute account of all he attempted and all he 
succeeded in doing for the land of his birth one must 
turn to the multitudes of letters and reports which 
were written at the time. Some of these are gathered 
in Honolulu, while several hundred other letters have 
found their way to the American Board Department 
of the Congregational Library in Boston. 

The signatures of these letters are as signboards 
along the course of Dr. Gulick's life on Hawaii : — 

''For the cause of evangelical religion yours." 

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**Toor8 for right and freedom and the trimnph of 
Chrisf 8 kingdom." »' Yoors hopefully." '' Yours in 
Christian bonds." ^^Tonrs in sohcitode and hope." 
*^ Yoors in sadness." ** Yoors in perplexity." 
** Yoors in the fomaoe." 

' Bot the last letter had been written. He had parted 
again from wife and children and aged parents; 
and now, in the gloaming, he stood alone behind the 
pQot house and once more watched with dimmed 
eye the fading outline of the land he passionately 
loved. He was returning to Boston to talk about the 
future missionary course of his life. And while his 
heart ached, he could not anticipate the earnest voice 
that should, years after, try to call him home again ; 
nor realize that his life on Hawaii had prepared him 
to enter a wider door and a larger work in other lands. 

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FROM what had sometimes seemed the furnace 
there was abrupt change of atmosphere when 
Dr. Gulick found himself quietly seated in the cordial 
serenity of the Mission Rooms in Boston. Indeed, 
the sort of intensity which gave peculiar interest to 
his Hawaiian experiences was never repeated for him. 
Necessarily, therefore, the year 1870 marked a turn- 
ing point in his life. The subsequent steps in its 
course were, however, in harmon}^ with the strength 
of character which life in Micronesia and Hawaii had 
already demonstrated. For years these steps forced 
their way through strangely new and varied scenes. 

Though early appointed by the Prudential Commit- 
tee to act as district secretary for New England, the 
arrangement was temporary. And this because, as he 
says : " I pressed so hard to go abroad again, even to 
Micronesia if there were no other door open, that I 
am still to be considered a foreign missionary at home 
to get ready for another stage of labor. Indeed, the 
idea is quite distinct that we go to Micronesia by and 
by if Providence favors." 


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Until the last of 1871 he therefore acted as district 
secretary, " flying about like a shuttlecock," he says, 
" on the Master's business, as I suppose." 

During this time his family joined him. During 
this time also it came to pass that " five brothers of 
us were together for about fifteen minutes." A nota- 
ble event in a family whose living members had never 
yet been all together at any time. 

Charles Finney Gulick had died during his student 
life in America; and of the remaining six brothers 
three ^ were already engaged in foreign missionary 
work, while two others ^ were soon to enter upon it. 
Later yet the sixth brother ^ and the sister ^ joined the 
same service. 

In their devotion to duty, though it led to this world- 
wide sort of separation, the need of a new kind of 
courage came suddenly to Dr. and Mrs. Gulick. 
While still in Hawaii they had lent their youngest son 
to their bereaved brother Orramel and his wife, who 
petitioned for him ; a loan of a few weeks at first, but 
one that was lengthened into mouths. 

Both families had come to America. The brother 
and his wife were assigned to Japan. And because 

1 Orramel Hinckley, soon to sail for Japan, John Thomas in China, 
and Luther Halsey. 

2 William Hooker, who accompanied his brother Halsey to Spain, and 
Thomas LafoD, who joined them a year later. 

3 Theodore Weld. 
« Julia Ann EUza, 

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^' the Prudential Committee did not advise my going 
to Micronesia," writes Dr. Gulick, *' and because I 
wished to remain either in or on the Pacific Ocean, at 
my own request I go to Japan too, and with the cor- 
dial approval of the committee." 

The two families were to be together. And since, 
under this arrangement, the child would still feel the 
nearness of his mother and share the companionship 
of his brothers, with characteristic unselfishness he 
was lent again to the home which was desolate without 

Mr. and Mrs. Orramel Gulick preceded the others 
to Japan, and the little boy of three went with them. 
His parents were to follow soon. Weeks passed. 
Their boxes had been shipped to San Francisco. Final 
preparations had all been made, and the next steamer 
that sailed was to take them to Japan. At this point 
there was a sudden reversal of decision. The Ameri- 
can Board accepted a call to work in Roman Catholic 
countries, and wished to have the experience of Dr. 
Gulick in the establishment of its work in Spain. 

" It is hard," says Mrs. Gulick, " to refuse to listen 
to the combined wisdom of such honored men as the 
secretaries of the Board and Dr. Anderson, so we 
have consented to go. The severe trial is that in not 
going to Japan we cannot join our precious little one 
there. Indeed, the thought of not being able soon to 

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Bee my darling child is very hard to bear. Yet we do 
it for Christ, and willingly, as so much less than he 
has done for us." It was well perhaps that the brave 
mother could not know just then that she should never 
see her little son on earth again. 

" I acquiesce," writes the father, " though my heart 
is in the Pacific Ocean." 

In the mean time the friends who had already 
reached Japan were preparing to welcome them . 

" OUie ^ plans everything now with reference to 
Luther's ^ coming," writes Mrs. Orramel Gulick ; " has 
a bamboo gun and other things all ready for him. He 
thinks his crib is not large enough for both himself 
and Luther to sleep in, and yesterday morning prayed 
that God would teach us how to make the crib larger 
when Luther comes. Only two weeks from to-mon-ow 
the steamer will be here ! " 

When it reached them, instead of the friends whom 
they expected, and for Ollie, his small brother, there 
were letters which told them that those dear ones were 
not coming at all : that they were going to Spain 

Thus it came about that twenty years after they 
first left Boston for Micronesia, and with heroism 
as real now as that which moved them then, Dr. and 

1 Orramel, named for his uncle. 

2 His next older brother. 

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Mrs. Gulick set out again from the same port in an 
opposite direction. 

Soon after that it was Spain, but Spain without her 
fabled "castles." Far more real, indeed, was the 
poverty which appalled them as they met it in public 
places, and the pitiful begging for " charity, madam, 
for the love of God." " Such pinched and wan faces 
that followed us everywhere," writes Mrs. Gulick. 
" Such rags and tatters that fluttered in the breeze, 
and told of such suffering and such want ! " Such old, 
old civilization and poverty handed down for so many 
generations ! All this was to be seen while the memory 
was still fresh of well-oiled, well-fed, physically com- 
fortable Micronesia. 

And now, though Europe was both historically and 
geographically separated from the heathen world, yet 
living there did by no means indicate a separation 
from other mission fields. China, Japan, Micronesia, 
Hawaii, America, and Spain were linked together by 
the letters which each member of the family wrote and 
received, and which, by prearrangement, each for- 
warded to the next in order. This signified large 
drafts on slender purses, for, says Dr. Gulick, "I 
paid about fifty dollars postage on private matter 
during six months in 1872." ^ Yet it was an invest- 

>Iii this connectioii he begged that family letters should be folded 
with the first page outward, claiming that " this rule followed would 
save about a month's time in the Gulick family per year." 

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ment with a parpose. Because of it a family other- 
wise divided by oceans and by coDtinents stood as 
a unit in its purposes and convictions. And so far as 
intimacy with mission fields was concerned this corre- 
spondence secured for the brothers not simply a broad- 
ened outlook, but the practical removal of horizon 

Spain offered much to write about, for her towering 
history and its monuments ranged themselves as a 
gorgeous background to her faded present life. 

*' Yesterday I visited ancient Saguntum," writes 
Dr. Gulick, " founded (so Murray says, and Murray 
knows !) 1384 years before Christ. I am vexed with 
myself for having gaped so often over paltry places 
and objects five hundred and one thousand years old ! 
I sat me down on the steps of the Roman amphi- 
theater, saw the inscription of P. Scipio two hundred 
years before Christ, saw the gate called Hannibal's, 
and at last I began to have a realizing sense that there 
may have been such people as Greeks, Romans, 
Carthaginians, and such individuals as Scipio, Hanni- 
bal, and the Caesars." 

After all, however, the present was even more real 
to him than this vivid past. And being settled in 
their home in Barcelona, while he studied the language 
he also taught in the small girls' school which they 
opened at once, arranged for the permanent establish- 

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ment of their work at different points in northern 
Spain, and did much toward the advancement of unity 
among the Christians of Barcelona. He furthermore 
studied the foreign workers throughout the country, 
their theories, their methods, and the practical outcome 
of the combination of the two. Results followed. 
He soon stood as a general on an eminence. His eye 
ranged the whole field. 

Contrasts were necessarily drawn between all that 
pertained to humanity in Europe and in the Pacific. 
This did not always place Europe in the light : neither 
did it always shadow the Pacific. It appeared, 
indeed, that in methods of work and in types of Chris- 
tian character developed, Spain herself often suffered 
by the contrast. The cloud which cast this shadow 
upon her in 1872 was the apparent lack of all attempt 
to develop self-supporting churches. It was a con- 
trast to the zeal with which Christians worked for them- 
selves and others in the Pacific. England, Germany, 
and France had each sent missionaries to Spain ; 
but their policy was not of the self-supporting type 
which is held as the ideal in the missions of the 
American Board. On the contrary. Dr. Gulick found 
that almost everything was done for the Spanish 

*' Foreign money builds or hires the churches," he 
says, "pays the sexton, buys the melodeon, pays the 

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whole of the salaries of the native preachers and 
teachers, and, in fact, does everything for them but 
their eating and their sleeping. They are in conse- 
quence about ruined for Christian work. To become 
a Protestant is to be saved by grace and emancipated 
from all work. The idea of Protestantism is, indeed, 
so strongljT that of ' free grace ' here that the fact 
of its requiring 'good works' is forgotten, and we 
shall have hard work in teaching it." 

On the other hand, there were cheering conditions 
even in 1872: '^From three to Jour thousand who 
profess to be evangelical Christians, over twenty-five 
reported church organizations, and two thousand chil- 
dren under evangelical instruction daily." 

Of necessity these figures involved the vital ques- 
tion as to the true missionary position to take toward 
Spanish Christians and their churches. Meeting this 
query, Dr. Gulick recommended that "the foreign 
missionary clearly apprehend the distinction between 
missionary and ecclesiastical questions," and that, 
while retaining " unfiinching control of the former," 
he should " avoid more than an advisory position 
toward ecclesiastical matters. If the missionary tries 
by voting to control the action of the native churches, 
they will, by voting, attempt to control his missionary 

Two and a half years were spent in this work of 


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beginnings.^ The mission to Spain was fairly on its 
feet, and the Prudential Committee now asked Dr. 
Gulick to join its work in Italy. 

" Just the man we want for that field," writes the 
Secretary, Dr. Clark, " to take special oversight of 
our developed work, to bring the young churches into 
line. You will of course go to Florence : that is our 
Italian headquarters." 2 

" From Micronesia to Italy!" exclaims Dr. Gulick. 
" Could contrasts be greater? From the negation of 
all Art to the very mother of all the fine arts ! From 
the center of the Pacific to the center of Europe ! " 

And then in August, 1873 : "In Italy ! It seems 
like romance ! I can hardly realize it." 

Though it looked as if all previous experience had 
been but preparation for this new work ; and though 
Dr. and Mrs. Gulick greatly desired to be rid of pack- 
ing, and moving, and house hunting, and to find for 
themselves a permanent home at last ; and though no 
land could have been more charming and no friends 
more cordial than those whom they found in Italy, 
yet, as it happened, the stay there was not for many 
months. It ended because of their honest adherence 

1 Bey. William H. Gulick was located at Santander, since removed to 
San Sebastian, and Rev. Thomas L. Gulick spent seven years of his 
nine years in Spain, in Zaragoza. 

2 Ilcv. Mr. Alexander was already a missionary of the American 
Board in Italy. " He will devote himself specially," wrote Dr. Clark, 
♦* to the training school we desire to start." 

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to conviction regardless of personal sacrifice. Sum- 
marized, the following was the situation: — 

The work of the American Board was in conjunc- 
tion with the Free Church of Italy.^ Unfortunately, 
to a certain extent, the same defects characterized 
work in Italy as in Spain. And in Dr. Gulick's 
thought two of these were most prominent : — 

First : the indefiniteness of the idea that " the church 
must consist only of those who hope they have under- 
gone a change of heart and give evidence of it." 

Second : the lack of organization, " with special ref- 
erence to assuming all possible responsibility specially 
regarding their own work." For example, " the Free 
Church has had," he continues, '* a year of unusual 
prosperity : that is, they have had very large receipts 
of money from England and America, and have, con- 
sequently, done less for themselves than they did last 

As weeks passed, he was increasingly convinced, as 
he says, that " the work of the Board in Italy will be 
the most unsatisfactory of all their missions and the 
most expensive." And also that "there will not be 

>In this organization, thirty -five churches were "associated under 
a rather Indefinite church government which savored partly of Con- 
gregationalism and partly of Presbyterianism.'* Ten of these churches 
were placed under the care of the American Board. And judging the 
Free Church by a meeting of its Assembly in Pisa, Dr. Gulick early 
pronounced many of " their ideas of business definite and on the whole 
good though different somewhat from the Anglo-American style." 

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any great success in their work here on any true basis 
for indefinite years to come." 

At this point the American Board experienced 
serious financial emban'assment. Curtailment was 
necessary somewhere ; and Dr. Gulick's judgment 
indicated that the place for it was in Italy. 

"But I need hardly tell you," he writes to Dr. 
Clark, " that it requires some nerve on my part to 
give you thus fully what I conceive to be the unhope- 
ful side of things." And later : — 

" I am increasingly doubtful of the wisdom of hold- 
ing on in Italy. But I cannot tell you how much I 
dread another removal." 

It ended as he felt was best. The decision was 
made, and the withdrawal of the Board from Italy 
took place "because our financial necessities compel 
us to retrenchment." 

There was rapid movement of events for Dr. Gulick 
through the closing four months of 1874. A visit to 
Turkey was permitted. And Greece with its history 
and its classic- suggestions lay on his course. What 
a contrast to Micronesia with no history! As he 
sailed, he was "reminded of Homer and of the 
exploits of Ulysses." He passed Actium, saw " the 
mountains of Peloponnesus dim in the east ; " realized 
that " not far to the southeast, though it could not be 
seen, was ancient Olympia;" crossed the Gulf of 

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Messina; touched at Cerijo and wished it had not 
been smoky that he '' might have seen Ci*ete, where 
Paul was wrecked." After Milo, and Paros, and 
Syra, with *' Delos the sacred " in the distance, they 
reached Athens. 

^^I might have whizzed up in ten minutes on the 
railroad," he says, *' but thought it more respectful to 
the shades of Demosthenes, Socrates, Plato, and 
Aristotle to ride in the light of a full moon, in a car- 
riage that offered itself. An unexpected flash of 
sentimentality," he adds, " and my financial necessi- 
ties were more nearly reconciled than usual ! " 

Yet no delight in the wonders of the place served 
to draw him from his purpose to study Christian work- 
ers everywhere and their methods of working. This 
occupied more time in Athens than his sight-seeing. 
In Constantinople it was the same.^ While constantly 
there was inspiration for him in ''crossing and recross- 
ing the track of St. Paul and all the ancient gods." 

At last, however, with his friend Mr. Bliss for a 
companion ; with worldly possessions of cot-beds *'on 
which to sleep out of the reach of bugs, fleas, rats, 
etc.," with a tea-pot, a tea-kettle, a coffee-pot, a 
skillet, a spirit-lamp, knives and forks, spoons, plates, 
cups, all of tin ; with various sorts of food to nourish 

1 <* As yet I have done almost no sight'Seeing, but I am laying up 
grand Btores of missionary knowledge. I am wonderfully favored." 

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them and huge leathern bags to carry all this property, 
he started on his journey of eleven hundred miles 
through Central Turkey. A sei-vant accompanied 
them on one horse, the goods went upon another, and 
each traveler had his patient little beast to carry him. 
Thus the small caravan visited the eastern churches 
and was warmly welcomed everywhere. In truth it 
seemed to Dr. Gulick as if " the missionary families 
rivaled each other in doing all they could for us." 

He of the newest visited these of the oldest of the 
missions of the American Board. And wherever he 
went he was urged to tell them of his Micronesian 
and Hawaiian life. An interpreter was always needed ; 
and once, at a very small town, two were required 
because there was no one there who understood both 
Arabic and English. 

'*My words were, therefore, first interpreted into 
Armenian," he says, " and then into Arabic. It was 
rather interesting for me to fire off my gun, then wait 
for the fire to run along Mr. Bliss and Shimas before 
I could see the result. There was a long interval 
between the flash and the final report ! " 

After one of these talks one day, there came to 
see him an Armenian woman whose thrilling life story 
told of conversion, persecution, and faithfulness. It 
furthermore appeared that, years before, she had made 
a contribution of her golden ornaments toward the 

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building of the Morning Star. For this reason, it 
was not strange, perhaps, that when the visit was over 
neither Dr. Gulick nor the Turkish lady felt that 
Turkey and Micronesia were very far apart. 

The travelers had spent thirty-five days on horse- 
back, had journeyed eleven hundred miles, and had 
visited Constantinople, Thessalonica, Samakov, Sam- 
soon, Marsovan, Caesarea, Sivas, Harpoot, Diarbekr, 
Mardin, Urfa, Aintab, Marash, and many smaller 
towns. They had also crossed the Tigris and 
Euphrates. "Thoughts have crowded wonderfully," 
writes Dr. Gulick, *' as 1 have looked on at least a part 
of the land where Abraham lived, and from whence 
he started for the promised land of Canaan." 

After that it was Europe again, and Italy with the 
question of future location still to be decided. 

The mission to Austria begged for him there. He 
therefore visited them and submitted the question to 
the Prudential Committee. They felt, however, that 
the need of help was greater just then in Boston than 
in Austria, and sent the decision to him by a cable 
dispatch. Yielding to their wish, Dr. Gulick turned 
at once toward America. 

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DR. GULICK had taken steamer to cross the 
Atlantic.^ "My last act," he says, "was to 
go to Westminster and drop my tears — literally — on 
Livingstone's tomb — the noblest shrine in England." 
The work to which Dr. Gulick was primarily called in 
Boston was that of raising money for nominally 
Christian lands. In addition to this, however, and 
because of Dr. Clark's illness, he was temporarily 
pressed into the duties of the Foreign Secretaiy and 
the consultations of the Prudential Committee. 

In July, 1875, he was " taxed to the utmost and 
taking medicines constantly." He was preparing for 
the Annual Meeting of the American Board. " I am 
specially busy these days," he says, " writing up the 
annual reports of various missions. Have finished 
those of Papal Lands, and am engaged on that of 
Japan and Micronesia. Next week I take hold of the 
Turkish missions." In August he was tired, indeed, 
but '* about through with the entire foreign part of 
the Annual Report." 

1 His family joined him six months later. 

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While he worked thus intimately at the headquar- 
ters in Boston, various methods pleased him, and 
various other methods did not please him in the line of 
home policy. Very little can be said here on either 
side. Very little ought to be said in the line of criti- 
cism; for, in his personal relations, nothing could 
have been kinder or more appreciative than the con- 
stant attitude of the Board toward himself and toward 
his judgment of mission affairs. In fact, so far as 
investigation of manuscript proves any point, we learn 
that of his many suggestions made to the Board 
through his twenty-five years' connection with it, all 
but one were followed.^ 

Much as he enjoyed the work which he did in 
Boston and in New England, the current of his life 
seemed broken in upon. He was doing that which 
others, he felt, could do as well as he, and for which 
they might easily be secured. The foreign field 
seemed still to call him. Then, too, there was with 
him an instinct for maintaining, at whatever cost, the 
continuity of his life. Or, as he expressed it : — 

"My fixed determination has always been to work 
abroad, in one land if not in another, rather than give 
up altogether. So now, while there are reasons for 
my giving up my lifelong course, and while to many 

1 This was in their appointment of a man, whom he sincerely believed 
to be unworthy, to the position as Trustee of Oahu College. 

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my determination to go to foreign fields again may 
seem strange, yet my own understanding of the ease 
is that it comes from a wish to presei^ve the unity of 
my life. With characteristic self-abnegation my wife 
has encouraged my going even without h6r.^ And 
there is another thought which tends to keep me 
abroad as long as possible, the hope that it will make 
the foreign work more attractive to my children than 
it might otherwise be. It will be a proud and happy 
day when I can welcome them to mission service. I 
hope and pray that I may be permitted to hold on till 
then ! *' 

This was his desire. And though at forty-seven he 
was too old to begin a new language, and though 
Micronesia was still inexpedient for him, and though 
for these reasons he could not very well go out as 
a foreign missionary in connection with the American 
Board, another way was, nevertheless, opened to him. 
He received a call from the American Bible Society. 
In their behalf, China and Japan were offered to him 
as a field .2 

This stood on one hand to choose if he wished, 
while, on the other, was a position with the American 
Board as " District Secretary for South New England, 

1 It was necessary for Mrs. Gulick to remain in the country for the 
sake of the children. 

' In their work it was not necessary for him to have intimate knowl- 
edge of the languages of the two countries. 

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with center in Boston and Beat in the Prudential Com- 
mittee." It did not take him many hom-s to make tlie 
choice. And the officers of the Board could only bid 
him Godspeed ; for they loved the heathen world only 
as much less than he as their sacrifices for it had been 
less than his. 

^' Japan, after all ! " he exclaims again. 
This time it was Japan in very truth, the Japan 
which all the world knows so much about to-day, but 
which, in 1876, was full of its mysteries and its 
interests, its queer Oriental civilization with all that 
was charming about it, and its new civilization of the 
West which was unfolding itself before the bright, 
almond eyes of the astonished people. 

Mrs. Gulick, with three sons and a daughter, had 
remained in California. A fourth son had ah-eady 
been welcomed to the home of Dr. and Mrs. S. P. 
Leeds in Hanover, New Hampshire, while a second 
daughter accompanied her father to Japan. 

The City of Pekin, with its roominess and its 
luxury, was a pleasanter place for worldly comfort 
than the Morniug Star had been when father and 
daughter first sailed together upon this same Pacific. 
Yet the splendid steamer lacked the halo of the 
children's prayers ! 

After twenty days of sailing, they landed at Yoko- 
hama, telegraphed the news to Rev. Orramel H. 

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Gulick, in Eob6, and received by return message the 
crushing news that the precious child whom they all 
loved had died two days before. Grone back to God 
before the mother, whose heart still ached for her little 
son, had had a chance to see him and hold him in her 
arms again ! The blow seemed almost cruel. But in 
the thought of the mother herself, no cruelty ever 
comes to his children from their heavenly Father. To 
her it was only a mystery, and through the tightened 
pain about her heart she simply drew nearer to God 
and thanked him for the confidence with which she 
still could trust him. 

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THOUGH Dr. Gnlick never regretted the step 
which carried him from the American Board 
to the American Bible Society ; thoagh, on the con- 
trary, the same situation repeated would have resulted 
always in the same decision of adherence to foreign 
missionary work, still, with so strong a uatui*e as his, 
pain necessarily accompanied this transfer of intimate 
relations from one great missionary body to another. 
He calls it '*the wrench of his life," his "divorce- 

This was not strange, for his heart and his life 
were part of the living tissue of the American Board. 
Her arms had been about him in his cradle ; he had 
lisped childish petitions for her welfare when he first 
began to pray ; the strength of his manhood had been 
spent in her service ; while her officers were his friends 
and her missionaries his kin. For twenty-five years 
he had spoken to them through The Missionary Herald, 
and now to be silent there ; to belong suddenly to 
another organization and to another kind of work; 
to reach his world through other channels, — all this 


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combiDed to make a cross which grew heavier for 
months as he carried it. 

This proved to be a transitional period of his life, 
and the pain which marked it was the more intense 
because he was nervously exhausted when the need 
of the adjustment came to him. 

* ' I have no doubt the divine plan is being and will 
be worked out regarding me," be writes ; " but it 
will not be without suffering on my part, which is 

' ' You little know the sense of loneliness which 
often comes and remains over me. All my missionary 
connections are broken. There is no mission that 
claims me as its own. I am a stranger even to the 
missions of the American Board." 

"A sense of isolation surges in upon me and 
threatens to drown every other emotion. I begin to 
feel that I am hereafter to look back rather than for- 
ward. Yet such a life of breaks is hard to gather 
up ; hard to collect into a useful whole. I don't like 
the retrospect particularly, and yet from step to step 
I have tried to do the best." 

" My spirits are depressed. It is a dense, suffo- 
cating cloud resting down upon me which I have 
simply got to endure till it lifts. The only way I 
know is to shut one's lips and let the nervous system 
twang itself into silence." 

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For months this sense of loneliness was the sad- 
dened undercurrent of his life. It was the harder to 
bear because Mrs. Gnlick was detained in California a 
year by the needs of their chUdren, and because in the 
mean time his days were necessarily spent in traveling 
alone and in making new acquaintances. The truth 
is that traveling, for its own sake, had lost its 
fascination for him. 

*' I am loth to strike out again into the cold ocean 
of traveling and isolation," he says; "but I will 
nerve myself up, hold my breath, and plunge in. 
I shall get through somehow, and then it will not 
seem so dreadful." 

*' I don't quite see how it is," he writes at another 
time, " that one so dependent on family life and love 
is so tossed away from it. Though my exterior does 
not betray the fact, I believe I am more dependent on 
a wife than most men. We Gulicks are as cold as 
ice outside; as hot as fire within." 

"It has been hard enough in the past — much 
harder than anybody has known — to tear myself 
away from wife and children ; so hard this time that 
it seemed as though I should succumb under it." 

"I long for you so that I sometimes feel as if I 
could not endure it." 

But having set his teeth together and nerved him- 
self to meet it, he stepped through this inevitable 

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pain and loneliness into happiness and work which 
was increasingly full of satisfaction to him. With 
it there was the exhilaration which comes when every 
faculty is strained to the utmost. His personal experi- 
ence, his grasp of practical methods, his power as 
an organizer, his acquaintance with the missionary 
work of the world were all joined for his success. 

Furthermore, in the rush of pressing duties his 
thoughts were carried more and more constantly 
away from himself. Enthusiasm was aroused and full 
contentment was coming to him. 

His wife and younger children joined him in 1877. 
While he waited for them he had himself been rather 
amused at the volume of his writing. 

*'I don't believe that husband ever wrote to wife 
much more faithfully," he says, "by day. and by 
night, abroad and at home, when busy and when at 
leisure, when wakeful and when sleepy, when receiv- 
ing letters and when receiving none ! " But at last 
she was coming, and he writes : — 

" I tremble as I hope and plan. It seems as if I 
could not wait six days to see you. My heart never 
yearned so toward absent loved ones as at the present 
moment. G-od keep you safely ! Words are tame ! " 

Thus he waited .as eagerly for his family among the 
millions of Japan as he had waited once before quite 
alone on Ponape. And when they arrived in safety 

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the final, and on the whole the most joyful, era of his 
life was fairly entered upon. 

*' I find my work very congenial," he says, *'and 
I have been received with kindness by the American 
missionaries of all denominations. Already large 
responsibilities are on my hands«" 

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NO sketch of Dr. Gulick's life would be complete 
without referring to the closing years of the 
lives of his parents. They were seventy-six and 
seventy-seven years old respectively when they left 
Hawaii for Japan. The reason for the move was the 
fact that they were growing feeble ; that in fulfillment 
of their prayers their six sons were engaged in foreign 
missionary work, while their daughter was also sum- 
moned to it, and that rather than permit any child to 
leave his work for the sake of caring for them in their 
old age, they preferred to go to their children instead. 
It therefore came to pass that their son Orramel had 
gone to Hawaii to take his parents and his sister back 
to Kob^ with him. 

Almost half a century had passed since Grandfather 
Gulick, as he was affectionately called, had even seen 
the outline of his native land. From the energy and 
ambition of young manhood, the years had changed 
him into an old man. His shoulders were bent now, 
and his hair was white. But his thin, keen face and 
his eyes, still as blue as the sky, beamed with pleasure 


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at the sight of San Francisco. In trath, Rip Van 
Winkle himself did not return to greater changes, for 
steam and electricity had acted the part of magicians 
since he left the world almost fifty years before. And 
now, for the first time in his life, the venerable man 
rode upon a railroad train and sent his thoughts over 
telegraph wires. 

From San Francisco they went to Japan. And 
tliereafter, until the aged saints went to heaven, the 
Kob^ home seemed a gateway to Beulah Land. 

Grandfather Giilick himself was the first to pass 
through it. And in his private memorandum book 
there are foreshado wings of the change. On the 
twelfth of March, 1877, he reached the pinnacle of 
his eighty years, and his entry made that day is a 
characteristic retrospect. 

" The close of this day," he writes, " will complete 
ray fourscore years in this world — twenty-nine thou- 
sand two hundred and twenty days. Solemn thought ! 
And how little have I done for Him who created me, 
died to redeem me, and has preserved me so long and 
blessed me so abundantly ! If, as is believed, one 
person dies every second, then since I was born, twj 
billion, five hundred and thirty-four million, two hun- 
dred and eight thousand fellow mortals have gone to 
their eternal estate. Alas ! how few of them have I 
helped to secure a blessed immortality ! " 

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Six months after this he traced the last words that 
were ever written in the little memorandum book — 
a series of quotations : — 


" By the grace of God I am what I am.*' 

" Into thy hand I commit my spirit." 

" Thou hast redeemed me, O Lord God of truth." 

" Hallelujah 't is done. I believe in the Son, 
I am saved by the blood of the crucified one!" 

''Jesus alone can help. Jesus is mine. 
Farewell mortality. Jesus is mine. 
Welcome eternity. Jesus is mine." 

" To lay down my burden at Jesus' feet, 
And cease from my toiling and laboring, is sweet." 

" I wish the above printed or written very legibly and laid on^ 
my shroud as I lie in a very plain, cheap coffin." 

He drew the attention of his daughter to this written 
desire of his and said : " I wish it to be my last ser- 
mon." A month later the sermon was preached as he 
had wished, for the gate had opened and he had passed 
triumphantly through it. 

"There was no marked disease," writes Dr. Gulick, 
who with his wife was with him at the time ; " no pain, 
only weakness ; but he said he thought his feelings 
indicated a ^ breaking up of the old shell.' He 
suffered little save as weakness is suffering. And 
though he steadily failed, he was so comfortable that 

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Deither be nor we could realize he was so near his end. 
At three o'clock Saturday afternoon he rose with 
assistance and sat in his easychair. In doing so he 
nearly fainted away ; and as he recovered from the 
swoon he spoke of the *• Sun of Righteousness, his 
only joy and hope/ which he doubtless intended as 
his last testimonial to the Lord in whom he trusted. 

*' At seven in the evening he folded his hands upon 
his breast and a few moments later was sinking in 
death. He simply stepped across the rill and was 
gone. His life was finished, his work was done, his 
words all said. 

" On Monday we laid his body to rest in the ceme- 
tery of the Foreign Concession under the evergreen 
pines, near the shores of the Pacific whose billows he 
daily saw for fifty years, and in whose people, first on 
the Hawaiian Islands, and then in Japan, he for half 
a century took such continued interest. And standing 
about the grave where he rested we sang : — 

^ Asleep in Jesus ! Oh, how sweet 
To be for such a slumber meet, 
With holy confidence to sing 
That death hath lost its venomed sting.' " 

After that, the other world seemed to overlap the 
bounds of Kobe. And dear grandmother waited for 
the call that should take her into it. Since childhood 
she had dreaded the physical part of dying. But 

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after her husband left her, the fear of it was gone. 
Being alone one day, she was heard to clap her hands, 
and when- they asked her about it she said she did it 
beeaase she was so very happy; that at last her 
prayers were answered, for now she had no fear of 
death at all. 

As a result her thoughts were often on the other 
side. Most of her friends were there, she said. And 
with paper and pencil and trembling fingers she made 
a list one day of those she hoped to recognize when 
she should join them. 

Six years seemed long to wait, while she grew more 
feeble every day. But at last the angels and the final 
summons seemed very near. She was ill. She heard 
faint music in the distance, and as she listened, she 
hoped it came from heaven, but the delicate, quaint 
humor of her thinking did not leave her even then. 
She whispered to her daughter that she should not 
believe it was the angels unless they sang a little 
louder. After that, one day, a whispered prayer of 
hers was overheard. " Dear Jesus," the sweet old 
lady prayed, " please send the angels to carry me 
home. I am so tired." 

In 1883 her prayer was answered, for the angels 
came very quietly and carried her with them to heaven. 

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r I THOUGH special grants of money had already 
J- been made by the American Bible Society for 
work in Japan, still the Society had no personal organ- 
izing agent there till Dr. Giilick arrived. In China, 
however, the same Society had been active for years 
and had appropriated something like $220,000 to the 
needs of that country between 1833 and 1876. Hence, 
conditions in the two empires were not the same. 

"In Japan," writes Dr. Gulick, "everything is 
initiatory. Here it will be safe for me to be radical, 
progressive. In China, Bible affairs are already in 
deep ruts and I must be very careful and conservative 
and fortified by precedents." 

He realized that there was danger of a little friction 
in the work he had been set to do; and that this 
danger lay in the sensitiveness of corporations no less 
than of individuals. He feared lest some one should 
feel that past efforts were not appreciated because new 
methods were adopted, lest the old should feel crowded 
out by the new. 

Bearing this in mind, his effort was to avoid the 


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infliction of any pain to sensitive souls by the way he 
organized his work and gradually set the wheels within 
the wheels to moving. As a result his relation to 
societies and individuals was cordial from the begin- 
ning and increasingly satisfactory to him as time 
passed by. 

In its primary divisions the work of the Bible 
Society covered the three departments of translation, 
publication, and distribution of the Scriptures. The 
Society" itself stood as a great auxiliary to every 
denomination of Protestant American missionaries 
in China and Japan. When necessary, it paid the 
salaries of those missionaries who devoted themselves 
exclusively to Bible translation. It paid for the 
publication of these translations and supplied each 
American mission station with all that was desired of 
the whole or of special parts of the Bible. ^ 

These missionaries were, in turn, the natural centers 
of circulation. There was great dissimilarity in the 
methods they adopted. Some gave the Bible to all 
who would accept it ; some charged a few cents for it, 
while others decided in each case as to th^ wisest 
course. Furthermore, some stations were exact and 
some were inexact in their annual reports to the Bible 
Society, and some sent no reports at all. 

1 English and Scotch Bible Societies did the same work for the repre- 
sentatives of their countries. 

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It had, iDdeed, been difficult to require reports, or 
UQiformity of action in the past. But now it was 
needed. And in this effort after reorganization, in 
this replacing of chaos by method, there was satisfac- 
tion for most, though a few felt hampered by it. 

The requirement was nevertheless imperative, and 
Dr. Gulick moved quietly on with what he had to do- 
He sent to each missionary catalogues of the Bible as 
printed in different forms and sections with the prices 
attached, with blanks also for annual book and cash 
reports, and simple directions for their use. It was 
for him to gather into one pair of hands the many 
strands which connected the American missions in 
Japan and China with the American Bible Society in 

Through the cordial suppoii; of Dr. Gilman, the 
Secretary of the Bible Society, and the hearty 
cooperation of the missionaries this was accomplished. 
It was soon possible to begin the work of rapidly 
increasing the circulation of the Bible in the two 
empires. Everything favored this movement in 
Japan. In the first place, Dr. Gulick himself was 
stationed there, his home being in Yokohama. In the 
second place, the Japanese were just entering that era 
of national excitement when everything foreign was 
welcome to them. In a sense, therefore, the Bible 
also shared their curiosity. This fact may explain, in 

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part, the phenomenal sales made in 1880. A foreign 
colporter was the immediate agent, while his Bible 
carriage drawn by a horse, his Bible cart drawn by a 
man, his magic lantern and his singing were his instru- 
ments. For a season hundreds of copies were sold 
each day. 

" Mr. Goble has been in Tokio this week," writes 
Dr. Gulick, '* selling Scriptures from our new and 
beautiful Bible handcart at an average of over five 
hundred portions a day ! ! ! The cart sold during its 
first few days in Tokio over three thousand portions. 
A new era has dawned in Bible work for Japan." At 
the same time he adds : " The proprietors of eighteen 
little steamers plying on the rivers about Tokio have 
accepted copies of the New Testament which are kept 
in the cabins for the use of passengers." 

Copies were also allowed in railway waiting rooms. 
Indeed, it appears that during 1880, after the comple- 
tion of the translation of the New Testament, ' ' We 
printed and distributed more Scriptures than had been 
printed and distributed during all the previous years 
of Bible work in Japan — over eleven million pages 
printed, and over ten million sold." 

"We now have a Bible house in Yokohama," he 
says, "built for our use and rented for a term of 
years. And this Bible house of ours is a grand suc- 
cess, one of the successes of my life." 

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In 1881 business is reported as having ^' increased 
about fourfold in six months.'' The beginning of 
these enterprises had required more thought and labor 
than can easily be comprehended without full exposi- 
tion of the details. 

'* There is little to tell about myself," he wrote at 
the close of 1878. " I have been staggering under 
heavy burdens of work which have almost crushed me, 
so that my health threatened to give way altogether, 
but I am pulling through. 

"I am gradually getting my heterogeneous and 
scattered work into shape and can begin to see day- 
light ; that is, to see a possible execution of my duties 
as Bible agent. I now address myself with new vigor 
to my work. There is ample field for enlargement. 
No pent-up Utica ! " 

This plan for enlargement was so seriously followed, 
and the movement in each country was so rapid during 
the first five years of his connection with it, that by 
1881 the Bible Society concurred with him in the 
judgment that his field should be divided. 

He was allowed to choose the larger country. After 
that his work was in China and his home in Shanghai. 

For China this was a happy arrangement, for in 
whichever country he had previously spent his time 
there the progress had been most rapid. It was as if 
the engineer were present with a strong hand upon the 

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throttle of his engine. He knew how to add steam ^to 
the movement, and he knew how fast it was safe to let 
the engine go. Some notion of this work in China 
may be gathered from the statement of a few facts 
about it. 

The heaviest part of Bible translation had already 
been done. The Bible as a whole, as New Testament 
and Old Testament, as separate gospels and epistles, 
was published in seven different languages, and cata- 
logued as ninety-one different volumes. In China, 
therefore, the burden of effort was to provide the 
straightest channels through which to reach three 
hundred million people with these translations. 

For Dr. Gulick native and foreign colporters were 
these channels. When he first went to China but five 
natives were thus employed for the whole, of the north 
and middle region. But by 1884 forty-eight Chinese 
and nine foreign men were employed by him for prac- 
tically the same service. And by 1886 his figures 
proved that five sixths of his whole work of circula- 
tion was done by these Christian men, and that two 
thirds of this was through the Chinese themselves. 
In many cases these colporters were the pioneers of 
the missionary. And for the sake of helping them 
Dr. Gulick not infrequently accompanied a foreign 
colporter on an extended tour into the heart of 

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These journeys were the most intimate kind of in- 
troduction to the traveling facilities of the country. 
For six hundred miles sometimes he steamed up the 
Yang-tse-Kiang River in a large paddle-wheel steamer. 

' ' As we look along the river on which a mighty 
commerce comes and goes," he says, " it is mortifying 
to find so conspicuous among river steamers and ocean 
steamships, gallant sail vessels and clumsy junks, also 
those unsightly covered hulks in which the opium of 
English India is stowed, because the Chinese will not 
allow its being otherwise than surreptitiously kept on 
Chinese soil." ^ 

At other times he was on a junk or a flat-bottomed 
house boat. Instead of steam there would now be a 
sail or the current to help them, or men with long 
poles to propel, or men upon the shore with tow-line 
fastened to the mast to draw them along. All this 
was the method upon the great rivers and upon the 
canals which cover central China as railroads lace 
New England. 

By land there were horses and donkeys and spring- 
less carts, and palanquins with porters, and jinrikishas 

i"How affecting," he says, "to find the stolid Chinaman in his 
government relations steadily refusing any complicity with this de- 
stroying item of commerce. And how sad to know that opium is 
forced upon China by nominally Christian guns and bayonets. Ciod 
speed the day when truly Christian England, by continued appeals to 
its Bible-educated conscience, shall have raised such a sentiment as to 
sweep this trade, so far as enactments can do it, from both land aua 

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drawn by men and mule litters. But most amusing 
of all were the wheelbarrows, with a donkey to draw 
them and a sail to help the donkey along. Yet, 
whether the methods were one or many, whether the 
conveyances were few or numberless, the progress was 
always slow. Why, indeed, hasten in a country whose 
authentic history outdates the flood and whose future 
has the whole of time before it ! 

During these journeys all kinds of fair weather and 
dreadful tempests overtook them, and every sort of 
physical discomfort. At the mouth of the Peiho River 
Dr. Gulick once wrote : " It is now seventy-two hours 
that we have lain here — stranded and waiting for the 
tide to rise." 

A few months later on the same river and for an 
opposite reason there was cause for delay quite as 
great and far more serious. 

"We are to-day sailing over ricefields and corn- 
patches, and over the tops of houses on our way back 
to Kiukiang. The bund is under water and the streets 
are traversed with boats. One of the great overflows 
of this great land and these mighty waters. We 
travel the streets in boats, and kingfishers dart down 
upon the fish among the flowerbeds of the garden." 
With these floods there also came terrible famine for 
millions of people. "Five or six million who have 
starved to death," he says, "but who, after a little. 

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will hardly be missed, for lives and suffering are 
superabundant already and always in China." 

Beginning his missionary life with the consecration 
of Luther he carried it on like Paul. In journeyings 
oft, in storms by sea and by land, in comfort and dis- 
comfort, with friends sometimes, in loneliness often, 
but rejoicing always that the privilege was still given 
him of helping to carry the gospel to those who have 
it not. 

Being gray at fifty-two, the Chinese paid him a 
certain sort of deference, though the expression of 
it was sometimes novel. Tiiey asked him whether 
he were eighty or ninety years old, and distinguishing 
him from others whom they called " Foreign Devils," 
they called him the " Old Devil." But it may be, as 
he himself said, "The element of oldness probably 
balanced somewhat the disadvantage of being a for- 
eign devil ! " In any case they were more ready to 
take foreign books from the older than from the 
younger man. There was certainly an advantage in 
gray hairs in this land, where instinctive honor is paid 
to aged people. 

In journeying as he did, and in studying the move- 
ment of the nation, he was increasingly impressed by 
the magnitude of the work and by the power which 
China seemed to hold as a mighty storage battery of 
human force which should yet be drawn upon. 

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"It is thirty years this fall," he writes, "since we 
left Boston for Micronesia, but it looks to me as if I 
had just entered my life's great work. It is a great 
privilege to be here to have a part ; and China moves ! 
A new nation is being born, and what it will be we 
tremble to think. I pity the soul that turns away 
with a want of interest in China." 

' ^ It seems to me that this is the grandest mission 
field in the world. I don't understand the reluctance 
and fear of many young people." 

"China is circling toward a maelstrom, and now 
is the time to work for her. Ten years hence the 
relations of things will be changed and then Congre- 
gationalism will probably come puffing and blowing 
into the field, too late to take its proper place." 

" China will be a mighty nation long after America 
and Japan have ' progressed ' into oblivion." 

Thus from the smallness of Micronesia Dr. Gulick 
had moved step by step to the largeness of the Orient. 
There were millions now for the hundreds then ; but 
the spirit that moved him remained the same. It still 
led him to unsparing devotion of himself even in lines 
of effort that were wholly uncongenial to him. 

In China extensive bookkeeping was the uncongenial 
duty. The enlargement of the work there was so 
rapid that the expenditure of the Bible Society in that 
country alone soon reached the large sum of twenty- 

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five thousand dollars a year. This meant mathematics 
in earnest. And in this connection it is interesting 
to know that when Dr. Gulick was a small boy of 
five no one could confuse him on the multiplication 
table under the twelve-times-tvelve, but that through 
the whole of his later life figures in any shape were 
a weariness to him. No pleasure in the work itself 
ever led him to undertake anything mathematical. 
Now, however, the necessity had come to him as a 
duty. In serious earnest he therefore studied book- 
keeping as he had never studied it before, and lay 
awake at night over the peculiar difficulties which 
accompanied the inevitable complexity of his book 

Of necessity these accounts were kept with each 
separate denomination of Americans in China; with 
many of the two hundred and eighty individual mem- 
bers of these denominations ; with forty-seven colpor- 
ters ; with publishing houses, and with various other 
organizations and individuals who were more or less 
directly connected with Bible Society moneys ; and 
though before many months he mastered the science 
of bookkeeping and narrowed it down to a very fine 
point of exactness, yet he never enjoyed it. It was 
always drudgery to him and he cried out against it 
sometimes, even as he had cried out against cooking 
in Micronesia years before. 

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" I was not cut out for a bookkeeper ! " he exclaims. 
" Why should we be put to work for which we have 
no fitness?" 

"I am at work every evening till ten and eleven 
o'clock, and last night till half -past one at my books." 

"I have closed up my 1885 accounts without any 
assistance, and yesterday the auditors examined and 
approved them. I consider it quite a feat to foot up 
a balance sheet involving over twenty thousand dollars 
without an error of one cent in the most scientific 
methods of double entry ! " 

" Is it not a singular ordering that gives me, who 
have no aptitude for figures, the bookkeeping incident 
to an expenditure of twenty-five thousand dollars? 
Something not well arranged somewhere ; but as it is 
given me to do, I put my strength into it." 

This faithfulness was in harmony with the full 
investment of himself which he had made and there 
were rapid returns. Through increased organization 
and enlargement of his agencies the pages of the 
Bible were finding their way into many parts of 
previously unreached, conservative China. From a 
circulation of 74,800 volumes in 1878, the number 
distributed every year rose by jumps until, during 
1887, there was an actual distribution through the 
American Bible Society alone of 252,875 copies. 
The significance of these figures was emphasized in 

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1891, when a successor in the work, Dr. Wheeler, 
wrote of Dr. Gulick : — I 

^^I find everywhere traces of his master hand ^ in i 

the formation and shaping of the operations of the 
American Bihle Society in these ends of the earth." 

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IN addition to the pressure of Bible work, Dr. 
Guliek was constantly tempted to assume other 
responsibilities. The strongest of these temptations 
came with the frequent invitation to preach in English. 
In 1880, while yet in Japan, he says : — 

"My powers have been taxed to the utmost in 
meeting the demands of my agency alone. And 
besides this, I have preached twice almost every 
Sabbath of the year to the Union Church of Yoko- 
hama,^ and done what little I could of pastoral work. 
Consequently this has been a busy year. And now, 
the more I rest, the more I want to." 

But having once started in the line of overwork, it 
was increasingly difficult to secure release from it. 
For, after Japan, there was China. And from the 
Union Church of Yokohama, how refuse the urgency 
of the other union church, in the still more enterpris- 
ing city of Shanghai? 2 There again he therefore 

^ The first thousand dollars paid tovrard the erection of this first 
Protestant church in Japan was given by the Christians in Hawaii. 

' lie thus pictures the city : •' Just outside and to the north of the 
mediseval city, along the low bank and the muddy, sluggish river, is 

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preached. His supply of the pulpit was irregular at 
first, but it resulted in a coDtinuous pastorate of the 
church from 1887 to 1889. Aud in Shanghai, as in 
Yokohama, the audience increased in size as he 
remained connected with it. 

The building itself was new and had cost thirty-five 
thousand dollars. It seated three hundred people, 
and numbered among its members eleven different 

'' Of necessity, there is no very compact organiza- 
tion," Dr. Gulick saysi "the machinery of church life 
being left at a minimum for the sake of avoiding 
every possibility of friction. But no church in any 
part of the world is more united in the matters on 
which it unites." 

It was a pleasure to minister to such an organiza- 
tion. And yet the men and women who listened to 
him every Sabbath little realized how much this 
preaching signified to their pastor himself. Through 
it he entered the citadel of his lifelong enthusiasm, 
the " castle in Spain" which he had dreamed about in 
his boyhood, and the gleaming of whose towers had 

the foreign city of Shanghai, resplendent with banks, hotels, and com- 
mercial houses. Its streets are wide and smooth as the most perfect 
macadam can make them; and they overflow with life : —a vast portion 
of it being the stalwart, almond-eyed, flowing-robed, and shrewdly 
industrious Celestial. But the vitalizing element of it is the short- 
haired, unpicturesquely clothed, yet tremendously energetic European, 
mainly English." 

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been his inspiration ever since. His thought was that 
in preaching every Sabbath he would gain enough 
mental reinvigoration to compensate him for the 
nervous force expended. ^ 

The audience itself was not large, but it was 
thoughtful and appreciative. It included business 
men of such energy that they had gone halfway 
round the world to make their fortune ; sea captains, 
officers, and crew, who never went to church from 
sense of duty ; missionaries, also, and teachers who 
had practically expatriated themselves for the sake of 
China. Besides these, there was the literary tramp, 
and the ministerial tramp, and the wealthy tramp ; 
all of whom, either in the pursuit of fame, or to 
satisfy a morbid curiosity to see "the heathen," or 
to spend superfluous time and money, formed a rest- 
less current of eager humanity moving round the world 

In addition to his preaching, there was sometimes a 
lecture, or an address, or a temperance talk to be 
given. Of one of these, he writes: "A daily paper 
calls it ' a witty speech,' the other says it was ' a 
spirited address,' from which you will gather about 
what it was." 

The evident brightness of the address but points 

1 In deddiiig the matter he wrote : " If I can serve the church and 
the Bible Society, I may think of it; otherwise, I give up the church." 

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his cheerful mental condition during these years. It 
is easy, indeed, to recognize the satisfaction he felt in 
having, as he says, ^' found his niche." He was 
working, it is true, as never before in his life. Yet 
the work itself was a delight to him. He was touch- 
ing many people. His thoughts were drawn away 
from himself. For years now introspective musings 
had been laid aside, and the more normal attitude of 
religious life had taken its place. 

Those were happy years in China, yet they were 
overcrowded. First there was his Bible work. Then 
there was the burning of nervous force in preaching, 
and besides was the tax which came in 1885, when he 
consented to be the literary editor of The Chinese 
Recorder. This was a magazine of high literary 
grade, printed in the English language in Shanghai. 
It was issued once in two months. Later yet, but at 
the same time that he carried all his other duties. 
Dr. Gulick was chosen business editor of The Chinese 
Medical Journal, a quarterly magazine. And though 
he groaned somewhat in protest he did not refuse the 

The truth is that words of encouragement and 
appreciation always acted upon him as a tonic, and 
that, at this time, so many kind and cordial remarks 
were made to him about the methods of his work, and 
the help he was to others, that a certain sort of 

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strength came with them which he failed to reoc^nize 
as fictitious. He was simply stimulated to yet larger 

'' I enjoy preaching more, I think, than ever," he 
writes, '* for the church is very cordial and it is 
pleasant work." 

" Within a few weeks I have received more expres- 
sions of appreciation than in all my life before. It 
is very pleasant." 

'* I am impressed with the delights of my present 
form of work. Never before have I had everything 
so satisfactory. It is of the Lord." 

'*! seem to myself to have taken a new lease of 
life. New vistas of pleasure and usefulness are 
opening before me." 

"I am beginning to receive commendations from 
many parties here about The Recorder. The fact is, 
it puts me on a vantage ground for Bible work such 
as nothing else could give me. It is as The Kuokoa 
was to me on the Hawaiian Islands in my work as 

" I am receiving many commendations and the 
circulation is going up steadily." 

"' I am almost too nicely fixed in almost every way 
— in my business and in ray home. I wonder how 
long it will last ! I have a hope and a feeling that I 
am to be more permanent in the present work than I 

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hmvt beec in an j odher, and that I have made my last 
gfeat rhinp m lifers actiTitM.** > 

IV>}ect«d aa pebbl«s iato the honyiiig corrent of 
this Hfe were Tarioos other erents that prodaced more 
or leaa distarbaace of the surface. Of least impor- 
tance, perhaps, was the honorarr degree of D.D. 
cocfefred npoa him bj Knox College. This drew 
bright coQimentB from his pen as he begged his friends 
not to use it. 

*'*' Please do not address me as D.D.," he writes to 
one. ** The semi-lonar fardels are well enough, bat it 
woold be far better if they oocQd be arranged symmetri- 
cally, one before and one after the name. To pat them 
both after it acts something like a leaden sinker to a 

And to another : ^^ It is nothing to be specially jubi- 
lant over. They did not know me or they woald not 
haTe done it. It was a sort of accident. I most take 
it as Dr. Thompson^ of Boxbnry, says Dr. Anderson 
took his D.D., knowing that, like the rain from heaven, 
they fall on the just and on the onjast. Hease address 
me as heretofore." 

Clearly enough, titles of honor meant little. But 
Dr. and Mrs. Gulick felt that honor itself had come to 

1 Dnrlng the Bommer of 18&t he hAd visited America, joining his wife, 
who had preyiouBly returned for her health. Both parents were pres- 
ent at the gndnatlon of their sons Sidney and Edward from Dartmoath 

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them when two of their children turned to foreign 
missionary work. This occurred in 1887. A daugh- 
ter with her husband ^ then went to Japan via San 
Francisco, while a son^ and his wife also joined the 
same mission of the American Board, reaching it via 
Europe and China. It was a great day for the home 
in Shanghai when the parents there waited to welcome 
their oldest son and his young wife. " We are in a 
high state of excitement for two such old people," 
wrote Dr. Gulick to his brother. " Thank God and 
rejoice with us." On the twenty-second of December, 
1887, a very brief note was burned through the mail. 

'*Dear Orramel. They have come. Halsey." 

Other pebbles that created small eddies for a season 
were the different calls that came to him. One begged 
him to join the Chinese mission work as a regular 
physician. Another wished him to accept the presi- 
dency of a college in China. Still another asked for 
the use of his name as director of a university pro- 
posed for Shanghai. 

But moving him most was an earnest call from 
the Hawaiian Evangelical Association, emphasized by 
request from the American Board and by urgent per- 
sonal letters from his friends on Hawaii, that he return 
to his old position as Secretary of the Hawaiian Board. 

» Rev. Cyrus A. Clark. 
>Rev. Sidney L. GuUck. 

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This call gratified him more than any other that ever 
came to him. " You cannot know how moved I am 
in this matter," he writes. "Did I suppose that I 
were indispensable to the good cause among you, I 
should return as soon as possible." 

But because the Bible Society now had prior claim 
upon him, and because he seemed peculiarly adapted 
to his work in China, he thought it would not be right 
to accept the invitation. It was hard to decide against . 
it, for he loved Hawaii as tenderly now as in his 
earlier years. His best judgment guided him, how- 
ever, and he remained where he was. '' My last 
opportunity of spending my remaining days among 
the friends of younger years thus passes," he says. 
" My heart is moved." 

There was yet another call for immediate help 
which Dr. Gulick answered in the affirmative without 
a moment's hesitation. This came from his old fel- 
low worker, Mr. Doane, in Micronesia. 

It appears that, even in 1885, troubles had begun 
for Micronesia in the counter-claims of Germany and 
Spain for possession of the microscopic Caroline 
Islands. These islands were worth something to 
commerce now, for thirty-five years of American 
Christianity had borne their legitimate fruit. To 
large extent, heathenism had given place to Chris- 
tianity, and Ponape herself was sending foreign mis- 

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OVE^WOBK. 297 

sionaries to the more distant and degraded Mortlock 

The transformation was so complete that it was no 
more strange than it was unjustifiable that two great 
Christian powers on the other side of the world, in 
their wish to own the beautiful, helpless islands, should 
have been willing to rob them of their manhood : two 
powers, which since the beginning had never, by the 
slightest woM or act, helped them to secure their civ- 
ilization. The question of right was submitted to the 
Pope for decision. "And thus a Christian minister 
decides which of two thieves shall have the property 
they have stolen ! " is the indignant comment which 
Dr. Gulick made. 

In March, 1887, the end came to Ponapean inde- 
pendence. A Spanish gunboat arrived with "gov- 
ernor, troops, convicts, and Capuchin monks." 

" The natives take it quietly but sorrowfully," writes 
Mr. Doane. "I advise the truest submission. It is 
our only safety. And I am happy to say they obey." 

After that, events moved rapidly until, on the 
thirteenth of April, the Spanish governor imprisoned 
Mr: Doane on a series of false charges; kept him 
a prisoner on his man-of-war in Ponapean waters for 
three months, and finally deported him two thousand 
miles to Manila " for trial," as he said. Arriving 
there, Mr. Doane was not prevented from mailing his 

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letters. Dr. Gulick was filled with indignation when 
he read them. With characteristic energy, however, 
he went at once to the Consul General of the United 
States to China; wrote to Rear Admiral Ralph 
Chandler, commanding the Asiatic Squadron; vigor- 
ously reviewed the case for him, and showed to him 
the interest America necessarily had in her American 
citizens on Ponape. 

" It is not for me to say," he wrote," what assistance 
may be rendered Mr. Doane by your department of 
authority, but I should evidently be derelict in my 
duty to the United States government, no less than to 
you and to my friend Mr. Doane, and to the interests 
of the missionary society with which he is connected, 
did I not give you the information which, probably, 
I alone possess in all this region, and which I shoald 
hope might seem to you to render it advisable that 
a United States vessel of war be ordered with dispatch 
to Manila." 

Further than this, he sent three hundred dollars to 
Mr. Doane at once by telegram, and in writing to him 
urged that he have *' as clear and full a written state- 
ment of the case as possible — statements that will be 
available in America and Spain." 

" You must plan to come up to China," he adds, 
" and make us a good long visit ; it will do us good." 

Happily the authorities in Manila were not willing 

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to support the extreme policy of the Catholic governor 
of Ponape ; and without time for a visit to Shanghai, 
Mr. Doane was returned to Ponape.^ 

Official word soon came from mission societies in 
America thanking Dr. Gulick for the promptness of 
his action. But the truth is, that, in behalf of his 
own love for Micronesia, he could not have done less 
than he did. For, until he passed away, the most real 
and central point of his life seems to have been those 
early years on Ponape. And references to them are 
constant through all that he wrote. 

Once in voyaging he passed an atoll. " And I 
could not but ascend the rigging of the mainmast," 
he says, " to look down as I often did in Micronesian 
waters upon the long line of cocoanut and pandanus, 
the straggling reef, the outer line of sand, the inner 
peaceful lagoon and the few huts on the outer reef. 
None of my fellow passengers knew, or could have 
appreciated had they known, the thoughts that surged 

^ In 1894, after the annual return of the Morning Star to Honolulu, 
Rev. O. II. Gulick thus reports the latest news from Ponape: "King 
Paul of the Matalanim tribe is a Christian apostle of power in his tribe. 
lie urges his people to serve the Prince of Peace with all their heart, 
and to fight the Spanish invader with all their might. . That is the tribe 
in which Halsey and Louise lived when I vi8ite<l them in 1857, thirty- 
seven years ago! Twice in bloody battle have the Spaniards been 
driven defeated from the bounds of this plucky little tribe, whose 
members, uuder the lead of their God-fearing King Paul, are deter 
mined to sell their lives dear, and their liberties dearer than their live-. 
For five long years this valiant tribe has held the Spaniard at bay. 
God bless them and help them ever to stand to their purpose." 

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within me. I often wonder why, with such a com- 
mencement to our missionary life, we have led sach 
lives as we have. Were we not adapted, or were we 
not worthy ? 

*' And yet my prevailing feeling is that of thank- 
fulness that, as we could not return to those silent seas, 
we have been permitted to have some part in foreign 
missionary work in foreign lands. But how little 
missionary fruitage compared with what we had 
hoped, and with what we should have had, had we 
continued in Micronesia ! But we only ' followed 

Dr. Gulick seemed still to be following on. Yet it 
is doubtle»s true that editorship aud preaching added 
to the great work which he did as agent of the Bible 
Society for the whole of China, with Siam finally 
added to it, were shortening his days. But who 
questions what his choice would have been? — the 
shorter life with the delight of preaching and writing 
crowded into it, or the weary adding of figures and 
the practice of double entry carried on through the 
unillu mined length of a few added years. 

Still, whether he would have chosen it or not, the 
fact remains that the zeal for work which was his 
master was driving him rapidly toward a master yet 
more inexorable, and that from him there would soon 
be no escape. Dr. Gulick himself did not realize 

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how swift this movement was. For us, however, 
various passages make distinct prophecy. 

1882. "I am beginning to find that my headaches 
are ceasing to yield to the medicines I have been 
accustomed to use." 

1883. "I am so pressed I hardly have a minute 
to breathe save in the evening sometimes, when I am 
tired out." 

" I am too tired to read even, I can only write ! 
Pretty far gone you see ! '* 

' ' On the tenth I was taken down with the most 
serious attack of spasmodic asthma I ever experi- 
enced. It had been coming on for eighteen hours. 
At last, I left my ofl3ce, took to my lounge, sent for 
the doctor, and did not stir from my sitting position 
for forty-eight hours. I am left very weak and sore." 

1884. ''How we whirl! ... I am hard at work 
writing. I suppose when I have ceased to write my 
life will end ! . . . I spent a part of last night in bed ; 
the first time in ten or more nights because of asthma. 
... I am troubled with asthma so much that I find 
it most convenient not to go to bed, but to sleep ou 
the lounge, which I do very comfortably. ... I am 
under a tearing headache. I can hardly see my 

1885. " I am, after two days, slowly recovering 
from one of the most terrific headaches I ever had. 

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My head very nearly failed me notwithstanding all the 
medicines I took — one hundred and twenty-five grains 
of bromide of potassia and forty grains of hydro- 
chloral in five hours ! . . . The Recorder, my annual 
accounts and reports, ray speech for resigning the 
Presidency of the Evangelical Alliance on the first 
day of the week of prayer, all make me very busy. 
. . . What with my oflSce business, my Recorder, and 
my lecture on the Caroline Islands, 1 am busy enough." 

1886. "I am rushing every moment and shall be 
loth to get back into the heavy strain of the last two 
years. Indeed, it does not seem to me that I ought 
to subject myself to such a strain again. . . . Fifty- 
eight years old ! Hard at work all day with not a 
leisure moment till this evening. No time for excite- 
ment. ... I never have done more than during the 
■past year. Up till half -past one preparing sermon 
because there had been no time before." 

1887. ''I have had the busiest year of my life. 
I have put on all steam so as not to let any of the 
interests suffer, and now that all is getting along so 
satisfactorily I shall take matters less nervously 
though I shall still be busy." 

1888. "I have delivered a lecture on recent dis- 
coveries in the Holy Land this week, and preached 
two sermons last Sabbath and am to preach two next 

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"My digestive system is giving way." 

"I am taking business quite easily, though most 
people would think themselves overpressed with what 
I am still doing." 

''Pray for me that these closing years, this last 
stage of my life's work may be usefully spent —7 spent 
in a way and with results that may finaUy justify my 
having entered this work.** 

" I should enjoy several months of entire relaxa- 

' ' A Happy New Year to you all ! The wish is a 
heartless sort of thing, and I seldom repeat the 
formula without a chill. And soon the chill will be 
in death. But how little it will matter save to our- 
selves ! " 

" God bless you all, and grant that we may find 
one another out after death.*' 

" How soon may it be before we shall be measuring 
the lapse of eternity rather than time; and who of 
us knows what that means ? " 

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THERE was no radical lessening of the work he 
did and no marked increase of suffering through 
headache and asthma until the early part of 1889. 
Then, without any announcement of it, the crisis of 
his life of overwork reached him suddenly. It showed 
itself first in a sense of utter prostration and weari- 
ness. Absolute rest was essential. This involved at 
least a temporary absence from China. Japan was 
the nearest point and they went to their children in 
Kumamoto. Here his prostration was so extreme that 
for days death seemed imminent. 

He rallied somewhat, but the best of medical aid 
was imperative, and once more Dr. and Mrs. Gulick 
crossed the Pacific together — the last time that he 
ever sailed upon the ocean. 

The headache of past years came to him now in 
spasms: *' tempests of pain" he called them. But to 
those who were with him the pain seemed agony, for 
he grew white even to the lips at such times and could 
not speak. 

When they reached San Francisco, there had already 


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THE END, 305 

come to him the feebler step of old age and the uncer- 
tain walk. Weary months followed. Physicians were 
full of kindness and they helped him for a season. 
Sanitarium life in California and New York seemed to 
give temporary aid, while the unwearied devotion of 
his wife was the anchor which held him most firmly to 
life. On the whole, however, those slow months from 
1889 to 1891 were an inclined plane down which he 
was steadily moving. By the first of 1891 the end 
seemed vei*y near. There was such weakness that 
even his pain was conquered by it. For many weeks 
he did not even touch his pen. 

He was in New York city again, and skillful physi- 
cians there were again doing all they could to help 
him. Yet no man, however gifted in the art of heal- 
ing, can create new wheels for the machinery of life 
when the old ones have passed all hope of repairing. 
At best he can only hope to add a few revolutions to 
the halting movement. And so the worn-out man 
tarried for a while in this city from which, forty years 
before, he had looked out with eager expectation on 
all that life might bring to him. He was back again 
in it with all that life had brought to him — with all 
that was left of life ! 

At fourteen he had been older than his years. And 
though in the number of them he was now only sixty- 
two, still in the measure of what he had accomplished, 

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in his crowded life of thought, in the height and depth 
and intensity of his varied experiences, he was older 
than sixty-two by many years — a shock of corn f uU}^ 
ripe. His hair was white, his face was thin, while his 
form, from the energy and the strength of a vigorous 
prime, had within two years taken on the shrunken 
outlines of an aged man. Weakness was added to 
weakness, and I who am liis daughter had gone to 
help our mother for a season in her care of him. No 
one understood his need quite so well as she did, so he 
told us, but for her sake he gently acquiesced when 
others tried to help him. 

It was Sabbath morning, and the sound of chimes 
in the distance and the quiet of the street brought a 
touch of holiness even to the metropolis. For the 
sake of change in position I had raised our father in 
his bed with many pillows. Then I stood behind him, 
and while I stroked his head we talked a little very 
quietly. It was not often that he spoke of death; 
more often, indeed, he spoke of plans to be carried 
out when he should be stronger, and very often of his 
hope to visit Hawaii once more. For " those islands 
seem more like home to me," he said, '' than any place 
on earth." But for several days he had questioned 
its possibility. 

'* If there is n't a change pretty soon," he said, " I 
think there never will be. I am growing very weak." 

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THE END. 307 

Once or twice he had also said : " I think we '11 have 
to give it up, Fanny. It's a pretty hard pull, and 
two years of it. Don't you think I have had a hard 

"O father," I would answer, '' if any of us could 
bear it for you, how gladly we would do it ! " 

On this Sabbath we had been talking about studies 
and reading, and father said : " Fanny, try to avoid the 
mistake I have made. Emphasize the spiritual part 
of your life. My danger has always been my tempta- 
tion to pay most attention to the intellectual. But 
the spiritual must not be neglected. It cannot grow 
if neglected." Then, after a pause, he added : " You 
will remember this when I am gone, will you not? 
Remember this is my dying message to you all." 

The promise made was very solemn. And standing 
as I did he could not see my tears, but I told him that 
he must not leave us yet, that all his past life had 
been but preparation for what he yet would do. He 
only answered : " I am not sure. I am growing 
weaker every day." 

After that he spoke of some one who had recently 
died. And in my great desire to hear him testify about 
it I almost whispered my abrupt question : ' ' Father, 
do you wholly believe in a personal immortality ? " 

And he answered instantly, in a voice that had a 
note of triumph in it : "I believe it wholly." 

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How blessed the peace of dying in this great assur- 
ance ! And our father had it. 

For the sake of being nearer to his children* the 
last weeks of his life were spent in Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts, and they were very peaceful weeks. No 
physical suffering marked them and no apparent men- 
tal unrest. The storm of life, its noise and its confu- 
sion lay behind him, and heaven was nearer every day. 

"What do 3'ou think about most of the time, Hal- 
sey?" his wife asked one day. 

"Nothing," he answered. *'I don't seem to have 
strength enough to think. I just lie here." 

Everything gentle and beautiful pleased him, and 
his eyes brightened always when delicate flowers were 
sent to him. The mute things, the silent, restful 
things, were perhaps most in harmony with the quiet 
harbor which he seemed to have entered even now. 
Many times when he could not sleep at night he found 
comfort in the gentle singing of his wife, and in the 
Psalms and Bible chapters, which at his request she 
recited to him. 

On the eighth of April, 1891, at one o'clock in the 
afternoon, the gi'eater peace came to him. -There was 

1 Bev. Edward Leeds Gulick was at the time pastor of the Congrega- 
tional church of Groton, Massachusetts. Luther Halsey Gulick, Jr., 
M.D., was the director of the gymnasium department of the Y. M. C. A. 
Training School located in Springfield. Pierre Johnson Gulick, the 
youngest son, was also in Springfield preparing for college. 

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Dr. and Mrs. Gulick. 

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THE END. 309 

no moment of warning nor time for parting words. 
His breath simply fluttered for a moment and then 
was gone. The gate had opened noiselessly, and one 
more brave soul had joined " the chou' invisible whose 
music is the gladness of the world." 

Two days later the precious earthly part of him was 
laid to rest under the whispering pine trees of the 
Springfield cemetery. A partially smoothed block of 
gray granite marks the spot, and on it the history of 
his life is very simply told. 




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SINCE the preceding chapters were written, Mrs. 
Giilick too has passed away. It seems fitting, 
therefore, that some record of the closing of her beaa- 
tiful life should bring this volame to a close. 

From Springfield she returned to Japan to join her 
children in their mission work. Four other children 
were in the United States ; and filial love, therefore, 
claimed her alike for America and Japan. But the 
devotion of her life drew her to what seemed to her 
the more needy land. Her children themselves no 
longer required her care. "And I am afraid," she 
said, " that I am not very brave, not brave enough to 
be willing to stay in America and add one more to the 
multitude of idle Christians." 

The decision was accordingly made. She was to 
sail from Vancouver during the summer of 1891. 
But, before she went, we again visited the cemetery in 
Springfield together. 

It was at sunset; and as we walked the heated 
street, flying clouds of dust sometimes almost blinded 
us. But as the bee wings its straight course to the 


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hive, its home, so our mother went straight and swift 
through the lonely place, toward the spot where her 
husband lay. 

Once more she was near to him, and the world was 
forgotten. She remembered only the hours by day 
and by night when her singing had soothed him. So 
now, in the twilight among the pine trees, while he 
lay beneath in dreamless sleep, she sang for the last 
time near him. Her voice sometimes quavered and 
almost failed, but her soul believed the words she 

" Asleep in Jesus I blessed sleep ! 
From which none ever wake to weep ; 
A calm and undisturbed repose, 
Unbroken by the last of foes. 

Asleep in Jesus ! peaceful rest ; 
Whose wakins: is supremely blest ; 
No fear, no woe shall dim that hour 
Which manifests the Saviour's power. 

Asleep in Jesus ! oh, for me 

May such a blissful refuge be ! 

Securely shall my ashes lie, 

And wait the summons from on high." 

Even the crickets were silent as she sang, and the 
angels drew near and comforted her. So it seemed, 
for her voice grew a little stronger, and there was 
growing peace. Then she almost whispered : ^'How 
he loved to hear me sing ! He said it comforted him. 

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Oh, why should I allow myself to suffer so? It is well 
with him I know. All his weakness and suffering 
ended! Heaven for him now, and I shall join him 
soon. Oh, my dear one ! my dear one ! it will be 
heaven next time we meet ! " 

Six weeks later she had reached Japan. 

To a large extent the succeeding two and a half 
years of her life were spent in the home of her daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Clark. This home was in Miyazaki, in the 
province of Hiuga. And in this remote, interior 
town, whore no other foreigners lived, but where the 
natives were willing to listen, Mrs. Gulick devoted her 
time, her thought, and her prayers, by day and by night, 
to the instruction of the people. Especially did she 
work among the women and the children. With a 
trained Japanese girl whom she taught, she made 
extended tours among the towns of the neighborhood ; 
and, speaking through her interpreter, she held the 
attention and won the hearts of the people. 

The pressing thought of her life was that opportu- 
nity was still given to her," and that souls about her 
were dying with no knowledge of Christ. 

In the midst of busy activity illness came to her 
suddenly, accompanied by terrible physical suffering. 
Her son Sidney was summoned by telegraph. It was 
soon apparent that her only hope of recovery was 
thiough a surgical operation. But the Japanese phy- 

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flician had not the needed instmmenta, and the mission 
doctor could not at once secure a passport permitting 
him to come to her. There was, therefore, no alterna- 
tive. She mnst, if possible, go to him. 

She knew how near death might be, and in speaking 
abont it, said that she ^^ was glad to die if it were the 
Lord's will, but that there were so many people still 
unsaved that she had thought she was still to work 
for them many years." 

For the Journey she was placed upon a cot-bed, and 
kindly Japanese jinrikish»> men carried her as gently 
as they could upon their shoulders. All hoped that 
she might at least reach Kob£, but heaven was nearer 
to her than Kob6, though they did not know it. 

As they approached the town of Takanabe, her 
pulse grew gradually weaker. Death was very near ; 
and for several miles before they reached the place, 
both son and daughter walked beside the cot and 
watched their mother. A sad procession! She was 
unconscious, but they wanted to be near her through 
what might prove to be the closing moments of her 
life. She lived, however, till the town itself was 
reached, and she was gently laid in the pleasant 
Japanese room with its soft, white mats. Then, while 
she was still unconscious, her release came. The 
mystery of pain was ended and the mystery of peace 
begun. This was on the fourteenth of June, 1894. 

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From Takanabe they moved on to Kob6, for the 
burial of the precioas body. Friends were at the 
landing place to meet them, with the hearse and beanti- 
ful flowers; and they went at once from the small 
steamer to the burial place. 

One more grave had been made in the heavy, sandy 
soil of the foreign cemetery. And here, as near to 
her little son Ollie as they could place her, with Grand- 
father and Grandmother Gulick beside her, the brave, 
worn body was laid to rest. Perhaps her freed spirit 
was near enough to hear them as they sang of her the 
words she loved : — 

** Asleep in Jesus I oh, bow sweet 
To be for such a slumber meet! 
With holy confidence to sing 
That death has lost its venomed sting.'' 

Ten thousand miles of land and water divide for- 
ever ail that is mortal of our father and oar mother, 
but, for all time to come, their spirits are united in 

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